Share this article on:

Body Mapping of Sweating Patterns in Athletes: A Sex Comparison


Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: December 2012 - Volume 44 - Issue 12 - p 2350–2361
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318267b0c4
Basic Sciences

Purpose Limited regional sweat rate (RSR) data are available for females, with only a small number of sites measured across the body. Similarly, sex differences in sweating concentrate on whole body values, with limited RSR data available.

Methods A modified absorbent technique was used to collect sweat at two exercise intensities (60% (I1) and 75% (I2) V˙O2max) in 13 aerobically trained females (21 ± 1 yr, 59.5 ± 10 mL−1·min−1·kg−1 V˙O2max) in moderately warm conditions (25°C, 45% relative humidity, 2 m·s−1 air velocity). Females were compared with nine aerobically trained males (23 ± 3 yr, 70.2 ± 13 mL−1·min−1·kg−1 V˙O2max) tested under the same conditions.

Results Female I1 RSR was highest at the central upper back, heels, and dorsal foot and between the breasts (223, 161, 139, and 139 g·m−2·h−1, respectively). Lowest values were over the breasts and the middle and lower outer back (<16 g·m−2·h−1). At I2, the central upper back, bra triangle, and lower back showed the highest RSR (723, 470, and 333 g·m−2·h−1, respectively). Regions of the breasts and palms had the lowest RSR at I2 (<82 g·m−2·h−1). Significantly greater gross sweat loss and thus RSR were observed in males versus females at both exercise intensities. For the same metabolic heat production (male I1 vs female I2), absolute and normalized RSR showed a significant region–sex interaction (P < 0.001), with a greater distribution toward the arms and hands in females versus males.

Conclusions Despite some differences in distribution, both sexes showed highest RSR on the central upper back and the lowest toward the extremities. No correlation was observed between local skin temperature and RSR, failing to explain RSR variation observed. These data have important applications for sex-specific clothing design, thermophysiological modeling, and thermal manikin design.

Environmental Ergonomics Research Center, Loughborough University, UNITED KINGDOM

Address for correspondence: George Havenith, M.Sc., Ph.D., Environmental Ergonomics Research Center, Loughborough Design School, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, United Kingdom; E-mail:

Submitted for publication February 2012.

Accepted for publication June 2012.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (

©2012The American College of Sports Medicine