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Energetics and Biomechanics of Inclined Treadmill Walking in Obese Adults


Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: July 2011 - Volume 43 - Issue 7 - p 1251-1259
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182098a6c
Applied Sciences

ABSTRACT Brisk walking is a recommended form of exercise for obese individuals. However, lower-extremity joint loads and the associated risk of musculoskeletal injury or pathological disease increase with walking speed. Walking uphill at a slower speed is an alternative form of moderate intensity exercise that may reduce joint loading.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the energetics and biomechanics of level and uphill walking in obese adults. We hypothesized that compared to brisk level walking, walking slower up a moderate incline would reduce lower-extremity net muscle moments while providing appropriate cardiovascular stimulus.

Methods Twelve obese adult volunteers, with mass of 100.5 ± 15.7 kg and body mass index of 33.4 ± 2.6 kg·m−2 (mean ± SD), participated in this study. We measured oxygen consumption, ground reaction forces, and three-dimensional lower-extremity kinematics while subjects walked on a dual-belt force-measuring treadmill at several speed (0.50-1.75 m·s−1) and grade (0°-9°) combinations. We calculated metabolic rate, loading rates, and net muscle moments at the hip, knee, and ankle for each condition.

Results: Metabolic rates were similar across trials and were of moderate intensity (48.5%-59.8% of V˙O2max). Walking slower uphill significantly reduced loading rates and lower-extremity net muscle moments compared with faster level walking. Peak knee extension and adduction moments were reduced by ∼19% and 26%, respectively, when subjects walked up a 6° incline at 0.75 m·s−1 versus level walking at 1.50 m·s−1.

Conclusions: These results suggest that walking at a relatively slow speed up a moderate incline is a potential exercise strategy that may reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injury/pathological disease while providing proper cardiovascular stimulus in obese adults.

Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

Address for correspondence: Raymond C. Browning, Ph.D., Department of Health and Exercise Science, 215C Moby B Complex, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1582; E-mail:

Submitted for publication October 2010.

Accepted for publication November 2010.

© 2011 American College of Sports Medicine