Share this article on:

Behavior Mapping: A Method for Linking Preschool Physical Activity and Outdoor Design


Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: March 2010 - Volume 42 - Issue 3 - p 513-519
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cea27a

The preschool that children attend has been shown to be a significant but variable predictor of physical activity of 3- to 5-yr-olds, whereas the time outdoors has been found to be a strong correlate of physical activity. Researchers speculate that variations in preschool physical activity may be attributed to variations in preschool policies and practices, including the form and content of outdoor physical environments. However, assessment methods linking them to physical activity are limited. Improved understanding of links between environment and activity could be used to influence childcare policy, which is highly regulated, usually at state level, to create outdoor environments more conducive to children's informal play and physical activity. The purpose of this article was to introduce behavior mapping as a direct observation method on the basis of the theories of behavior setting and affordance and to demonstrate its sensitivity to gathering physical activity and associated environmental data at a sufficiently detailed level to affect built environment design policy.

Methods: Behavior mapping data, including outdoor environmental characteristics and children's physical activity levels, were obtained in two preschool centers at the Research Triangle region, NC.

Results: Physical activity levels at the two centers varied across different types of behavior settings, including pathways, play structures, and open areas. The same type of setting with different attributes, such as circular versus straight pathways, and open areas with different ground surfaces, such as asphalt, compacted soil, woodchips, and sand, attracted different levels of physical activity.

Conclusions: Behavior mapping provides a promising method for objectively measuring relationships between physical behavior settings and directly associated activity levels.

1College of Design, NC State University, Raleigh, NC; and 2University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, BANGLADESH

Address for correspondence: Nilda G. Cosco, Ph.D., College of Design, NC State University, 200 Pullen Rd, PO Box 7701, Raleigh, NC 27695; E-mail:

Submitted for publication December 2008.

Accepted for publication December 2009.

©2010The American College of Sports Medicine