To examine associations among the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism and the response to a 12-wk (2 d·wk−1) unilateral, upper-arm resistance training (RT) program in the trained (T, nondominant) and untrained (UT, dominant) arms.
Subjects were 631 (mean ± SEM, 24.2 ± 0.2 yr) white (80%) men (42%) and women (58%). The ACE ID genotype was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with frequencies of 23.1, 46.1, and 30.8% for ACE II, ID, and DD, respectively (χ2 = 1.688, P = 0.430). Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and one-repetition maximum (1RM) assessed peak elbow flexor muscle strength. Magnetic resonance imaging measured biceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Multiple variable and repeated-measures ANCOVA tested whether muscle strength and size differed at baseline and pre- to post-RT among T and UT and ACE ID genotype.
Baseline muscle strength and size were greater in UT than T (P < 0.001) and did not differ among ACE ID genotype in either arm (P ≥ 0.05). In T, MVC increases were greater for ACE II/ID (22%) than DD (17%) (P < 0.05), whereas 1RM (51%) and CSA (19%) gains were not different among ACE ID genotype pre- to post-RT (P ≥ 0.05). In UT, MVC increased among ACE II/ID (7%) (P < 0.001) but was similar among ACE DD (2%) pre- to post-RT (P ≥ 0.05). In UT, 1RM (11%) and CSA (2%) increases were greater for ACE DD/ID than ACE II (1RM, 7%; CSA, −0.1%) (P < 0.05). ACE ID genotype explained approximately 1% of the MVC response to RT in T and approximately 2% of MVC, 2% of 1RM, and 4% of CSA response in UT (P < 0.05).
ACE ID genotype is associated with the contralateral effects of unilateral RT, perhaps more so than with the muscle strength and size adaptations that result from RT.
1School of Allied Health, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT; 2Research Center for Genetic Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC; 3Division of Cardiology, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT; 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; 5Center for Lifestyle Medicine and Department of Health Professions, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; 6Department of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; 7Division of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV; 8Department of Sport Science and Health, Dublin City University, Dublin, IRELAND; 9Human Performance Laboratory, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI; and 10Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Davie, FL
Address for correspondence: Linda S. Pescatello, Ph.D., Center of Health Promotion, University of Connecticut, School of Allied Health, 358 Mansfield Road, U-2101 Storrs, CT 06269-2101; E-mail: Linda.Pescatello@uconn.edu.
Submitted for publication November 2005.
Accepted for publication January 2006.