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Physiological Changes with Periodized Resistance Training in Women Tennis Players

KRAEMER, WILLIAM J.1; HÄKKINEN, KEIJO6; TRAVIS TRIPLETT-MCBRIDE, N.3; FRY, ANDREW C.3; PERRY KOZIRIS, L.3; RATAMESS, NICHOLAS A.1; BAUER, JEFFREY E.3; VOLEK, JEFF S.1; MCCONNELL, TIM4; NEWTON, ROBERT U.2; GORDON, SCOTT E.3; CUMMINGS, DON5; HAUTH, JOHN5; PULLO, FRANK5; MICHAEL LYNCH, J.3; MAZZETTI, SCOTT A.2; KNUTTGEN, HOWARD G.3

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: January 2003 - Volume 35 - Issue 1 - p 157-168
Applied Sciences: Physical Fitness and Performance

KRAEMER, W. J., K. HÄKKINEN, N. T. TRIPLETT-MCBRIDE, A. C. FRY, L. P. KOZIRIS, N. A. RATAMESS, J. E. BAUER, J. S. VOLEK, T. MCCONNELL, R. U. NEWTON, S. E. GORDON, D. CUMMINGS, J. HAUTH, F. PULLO, J. M. LYNCH, S. A. MAZZETTI, and H. G. KNUTTGEN. Physiological Changes with Periodized Resistance Training in Women Tennis Players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 157–168, 2003.

Purpose To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes.

Methods Thirty women (19 ± 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, V̇O2max, speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2–3 d·wk−1

Results Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and V̇O2max decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 ± 2 vs 4.5 ± 2%), bench press (22 ± 5 vs 11 ± 8%), and shoulder press (24 ± 7 vs 18 ± 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 ± 9 vs 37 ± 7%) and serve (29 ± 5 vs 16 ± 4%), forehand (22 ± 3 vs 17 ± 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 ± 4 vs 14 ± 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months.

Conclusions These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.

1Human Performance Laboratory, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT;

2School of Biomedical and Sports Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia;

3Laboratory for Sports Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA;

4Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA;

5East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA; and

6Neuromuscular Research Center, Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, FINLAND

Address for correspondence: William J. Kraemer, Ph.D., FACSM, Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology Unit-1110, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1110; E-mail: kraemer@uconnvm.uconn.edu.

Submitted for publication January 2002.

Accepted for publication July 2002.

©2003The American College of Sports Medicine