Training and overtraining: an introductionKUIPERS, HARM Section Editor(s): Foster, Carl; Lehmann, Manfred Chairs Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: July 1998 - Volume 30 - Issue 7 - p 1137-1139 Applied Sciences: Symposium: Training/Overtraining: The First Ulm Symposium Abstract Author Information Training and overtraining: an introduction. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 7, pp. 1137-1139, 1998. Elite sport requires high training volumes. However, little is known about the relationship between training volume and performance development. This relationship appears to have an inverted U-shape. Short-term overtraining or overreaching is probably associated with insufficient metabolic recovery, resulting in a decline in ATP levels. Systemic overtraining or staleness is attributed to failure of the hypothalamus to cope with the total amount of stress. Clinically, a parasympathetic and sympathetic form has been distinguished. It is assumed that these two forms express different stages of staleness. No specific, simple, and reliable parameters are known to diagnose overreaching and overtraining in the earliest stage. Submitted for publication October 1997. Accepted for publication November 1997. Address correspondence to: Harm Kuipers, Department of Movement Sciences, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. E-mail: H.Kuipers@bw.unimaas.nL. Department of Movement Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, THE NETHERLANDS © Williams & Wilkins 1998. All Rights Reserved.