MONTOYE, HENRY J., RICHARD GAYLE, and MILLICENT HIGGINS. Smoking habits, alcohol consumption and maximal oxygen uptake. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise. Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 316-321, 1980. Maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) was measured or estimated in 597 males, aged 16-69. Smoking and drinking habits were also determined in this population. After the influences of age, weight, skinfold thickness, and drinking habits were removed, smokers clearly had decreased Vo2max. Similarly, when the relationships were corrected for age, weight, skinfolds and smoking habits, the heaviest drinkers and the non-drinkers had the lowest, Vo2max and the moderate drinkers had the highest Vo2max, at least in the younger age groups. The same results were found when only those subjects in whom Vo2max was measured (essentially subjects under age 40) were included. Levels of habitual physical activity could not account for these differences.