The purpose of this investigation was to determine the comparative effects on middle-aged men of training by running, walking, and bicycling. Sedentary men ( age = 38 yrs), who volunteered to participate, were assigned randomly to one of the following training groups: I, running (n = 9); II, walking (n = 9); and III, bicycling (n = 8). All groups trained for 30 min, 3 times/week for 20 weeks at 85 to 90% of maximal heart rate. A control group of seven men of similar qualifications also were evaluated. Training heart rates averaged 90%, 87%, and 87% of maximum for groups I, II, and III, respectively. All experimental groups improved significantly in cardiovascular and body composition measures. The former was shown by significant increases in V̇o2max, V̇Emax, and O2 pulse and a significant decrease in resting heart rate. Body composition results showed that the experimental groups had a significant reduction in body weight, skinfold fat, and abdominal girth measurements. The control group showed no significant changes for any of the variables. It was concluded that improvement in the experimental groups was independent of mode of training.