More than a year ago, the editors of ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal® set out to survey the fitness industry. The 2007 survey (conducted in 2006) was an attempt to determine trends that would help health and fitness programming efforts that were then thought to become standards within the industry. The results of the survey and comments by recognized experts in the field were published in ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal® (1). The survey was repeated in 2007 with some surprising results.
Respondents to the survey were asked to recognize the difference between a "fad" and a "trend" before they opened the survey instrument. The editors were interested in trends in the commercial, corporate, clinical, and community health and fitness industries and not passing fads that could be introduced into the market and then fade away as quickly as it appeared. As in the past, the following definitions were provided:
- Fad. A fashion that is taken up with great enthusiasm for a brief period; a craze (http://dictionary.reference.com).
- Trend. A general development or change in a situation or in the way that people are behaving (http://dictionary.cambridge.org).
This survey, then, is of trends and not fads. It can be argued that the definitions provided to the survey recipient are vague and left to individual interpretation. Perhaps that is true. However, we now have two-years worth of data allowing us to make some useful comparisons. Future surveys will provide even more support for a trend-if it stays on the list. Each sector of the health and fitness industry will find this survey to be useful. The benefit of this survey to commercial (i.e., for profit) clubs is the establishment (or justification) of a new program for a new market resulting in a new source of revenue. Community-based organizations can use this information to develop sustainable programs within the communities they serve. Corporate and clinical programs with their unique member base can use these trends to enhance programming they know will be around for some time (i.e., a trend and not a fad).
There were 35 possible trends on the survey. These possibilities were developed from a list of potential entries based on an initial discussion during a meeting of the editors in Dallas at the 2007 ACSM Health & Fitness Summit & Exposition. The group represented each of the four sectors of the health and fitness industry (commercial, community, clinical, and corporate) as well as some working within academia. The editors were asked to disseminate the potential trends among a small group that represented their business population. From an initial list of almost 50 potential trends, that list was reduced to the more manageable 35 (eight more than in 2006). The final list contained potential trends that could be applicable in the four sectors of the health and fitness industry.
The next step was to develop the survey instrument that was easy to create and could be disseminated widely. The results needed to be in a format that was downloadable and easy to manage. Our goal was to survey as many health and fitness professionals as possible from those who were certified by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). To reach this wide audience, an electronic format was selected known as "Survey Monkey" (www.surveymonkey.com). This online survey tool is easy to construct, can be turned on and off within any selected time limits, and is easy to use. The survey was designed so that the respondent could finish within 15 minutes. As a bonus incentive, respondents were able to leave their mailing information and compete for a free copy of select ACSM books. Four fortunate respondents were randomly selected to receive a book once the survey results were tabulated.
The survey was constructed using a Likert-type scale ranging from a low score of 1 to a high score of 10. In addition, space was created for the respondent to add any comments. At the end of the survey, additional space was left for the respondent to add any fitness trends left off the list to be considered in future surveys.
The next step was to send the survey electronically to a select list of fitness professionals. In 2006 (for the 2007 fitness trends survey), a total of 4,000 surveys were transmitted with nearly 500 responses (12.5% response rate). For the 2008 survey, the list was expanded to include all current ACSM Certified Personal TrainersSM, ACSM Health/Fitness Instructors®, ACSM Health/Fitness Directors®, and ACSM Program DirectorsSM. There were 9,700 surveys sent out with nearly 2,000 returned for bad addresses leaving 7,700 with good addresses. Of those 7,700 good addresses, 1,858 responded for a return rate of 24%, nearly doubling the response rate from last year. Responses were received from all over the world including Asia, Europe, Australia, Africa, North America, and South America.
The final step was to collate the responses and rank-order them from highest to lowest and determine the fitness trends for 2008. Only the top 20 are reported here. We then asked internationally recognized experts in the health and fitness field from all sectors to comment on the findings. Their analysis follows this report. The table provides the results along with a comparison with the 2007 fitness trends. Here are the top 10 ranked from highest to lowest with a very brief explanation of each. It should be noted that the difference between No. 1 on our survey and No. 3 on the list was only 0.02, making them almost identical-a virtual tie among the first three.
1. Educated and experienced fitness professionals
This is a trend that continues with educational and certification programs that are fully accredited for health/fitness professionals. More educational programs will become accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP), and more certification programs will become accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA) (average score = 8.4).
It is not surprising that, as the market for fitness professionals becomes even more crowded, some degree of regulation seems to be in order. Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs and NCCA are both third-party accrediting agencies: CAAHEP for academic programs and NCCA for certification programs. Because of their independence, neither organization is influenced by the health and fitness industry. In 2007, CAAHEP added a Personal Fitness Trainer accreditation for certificate and associate degree programs. Accreditation for the Personal Fitness Trainer joins academic program accreditation for Exercise Science (baccalaureate), and Exercise Physiology (graduate programs in either applied exercise physiology or clinical exercise physiology).
2. Children and obesity
This is a trend toward more programs to attack the ever-growing problem of childhood obesity (average score = 8.39).
For the second year, childhood obesity programming is on the top of the fitness trends list. This public health issue was No. 1 on our list last year, falling to No. 2 by only a very small margin. It is no surprise that health/fitness practitioners see the problem of childhood obesity and its comorbidities as an opportunity to make a significant impact on a growing health problem that not only is impacting the health-care industry today but will have an even greater impact on the health of adults in the future. For the first time since these predictions were first made, the next generation of young people may not live as long as their parents or grandparents. The health and fitness industry has recognized this problem. All sectors of the health and fitness industry can benefit (as will their clients or patients) by developing health and fitness programs for children at risk for being overweight or obese.
3. Personal training
This trend continues as the profession of personal training becomes more of a reality and becomes more accessible to most people in all aspects of the health/fitness industry (average score = 8.38).
Personal training climbed to No. 3 from No. 7 a year ago. This trend was only 0.01 point behind children and obesity in the rank order of this survey and only 0.02 point from being No. 1. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the education and certification of personal trainers. In at least two states (Massachusetts and Georgia), legislation has been introduced to license personal trainers. Although there may be some minor variations of personal training (e.g., small groups), respondents to this survey believe that personal trainers are here to stay and will continue to be an important part of the professional staff of health and fitness centers.
4. Strength training
This is a trend for both men and women to incorporate strength training into their exercise routines. The health benefits of strength training will be emphasized even more than previously (average score = 8.29).
Strength training moved from No. 6 on the list last year to No. 4 this year. Again, it has been demonstrated that the central theme of many health clubs is still strength training. There are still those clients who train exclusively using weights, and there are still those who lift weights for bodybuilding and what is commonly referred to as body sculpting. However, today there are many others (both men and women) whose main focus is on using weight training to simply increase or maintain strength as they get older. Most health and fitness professionals today will incorporate some form of strength training into the exercise routine of both clients and patients. It is common for cardiac rehabilitation, pulmonary rehabilitation, or metabolic disease management programs to include some form of weight training in the exercise prescription.
5. Core training
This is a trend that emphasizes strength and conditioning of the stabilizing muscles of the abdomen and back. Core training continues to use stability balls, BOSU balls, wobble boards, and foam rollers (average score = 8.28).
Following strength training by only 0.01 point is core training with a ranking of No. 5 (the same position is held in last year's survey). Once considered a fad by many, core training seems to have stood the test of time. Core training typically includes the muscles of the pelvis, lower back, hips, and abdomen-all of which provide much needed support for the spine. Exercising the core muscles may enable the client or patient to improve overall stability of the spine and transfer that to the arms and legs, thus enabling the individual to meet the demands of activities of daily living and for the performance of various sports.
6. Special fitness programs for older adults
This is a trend that emphasizes and caters to the older adult. As the baby boom generation becomes grayer and because they may have more discretionary money than their younger counterparts, fitness clubs will capitalize on this growing market (average score = 8.17).
Falling from No. 2 in 2007 to No. 6 this year, special attention to older adults continues to be a strong trend in the health and fitness industry. Falling to No. 6 was a bit of a surprise, considering all the talk about the baby boom generation now rapidly approaching retirement age. Keep in mind, however, that this trend continues to be strong, making the top 10 two years in a row. Retired people typically have greater discretionary money but have a tendency to spend it wisely. Health and fitness professionals can take advantage of the growing population of retired individuals by providing age-appropriate exercise programs. The frail elderly can improve their ability to perform activities of daily living. The more active older adult can enjoy golf and an inspirational game of pickle ball. The highly active older adult (the athletic old) can be targeted by commercial and community organizations to participate in more rigorous exercise programs.
Pilates is a form of exercise that targets the core of the body (i.e., the abdomen, back, and hips) while using the entire body. It also increases flexibility and improves posture. The exercises are typically done lying down on a mat and involve a series of controlled movements of the arm and leg that strengthens the abdominal muscles, hips, and back. Pilates also can be done on special Pilates equipment. Pilates done on a mat is more popular because the same results can be achieved by just working out on a mat instead of investing in equipment, which can be quite expensive (average score = 7.9).
A year ago, Pilates and yoga were grouped together within a category described as "mind/body exercise" and was No. 8 on the list. There were specialized forms of both Pilates and yoga on the list of possible trend selections last year but were not identified as separate possibilities. This year, Pilates and yoga were separated because of the growing interest in both forms of mind/body exercise and because there is now enough of a distinction between the two forms of exercise to create this separation. The various forms of Pilates and yoga also were treated separately, but none made the top 20 of fitness trends for 2008. Pilates appears on the trends list for 2008 in the No. 7 position, whereas yoga appears as No. 10.
8. Functional fitness
This is a trend toward using strength training to improve balance, coordination, strength, and endurance to improve one's ability to do activities of daily living. Exercise programs reflect actual activities someone might do during the day (average score = 7.89).
Following closely behind Pilates in the No. 8 position is functional fitness, falling from position No. 4 from a year ago. Functional fitness has been a trend because it imitates activities that a client or patient might be faced with during the day. Functional fitness is popular in programs for the young and for the older adult. The younger person can benefit by performing activities that imitate sports movements or work behaviors. The older adult may want to increase strength to carry a grocery bag from the store to the car or golf cart in retirement communities or to increase flexibility, allowing someone to reach the top shelf in a pantry. The downward trend from No. 4 to No. 8 may be related to the fall of specialized programs for the older adult from No. 2 in 2007 to No. 6 this year.
9. Swiss ball
A Swiss ball is a round object constructed of rubber with a variable diameter of between 55 and 85 cm (22 to 34 inches), allowing for a wide range of activities to be performed. The Swiss ball also is known by other names, including exercise ball, gym ball, Pilates ball, sports ball, fit or fitness ball, stability ball, therapy ball, yoga ball, balance ball, or body ball (average score = 7.78).
A surprise in the top 10 is the Swiss ball. This type of exercise did not make the top 20 last year. It will be interesting to watch this trend carefully. In its first introduction into the health and fitness market, most professionals believed that this was a fad, and with most fads, it would disappear. Interestingly, the original Swiss ball has morphed into a number of new and exciting directions for children, young adults, and even older adults. It teaches stability, balance, and strength. For the much more advanced, a person can stand on the ball while doing strength-training exercise-not something the average person should even attempt!
Yoga has taken on a variety of forms within the past year (including Power Yoga, Yogalates, and others including yoga in hot environments). Instructional tapes and books are plentiful as are certifications in the many yoga forms (average score = 7.72).
Rounding out the top 10 is yoga. Yoga can be taught in many forms, each with its own special emphasis. Some of these forms are known as Iyengar Yoga, Ashtanga, Bikram Yoga (that's the hot and humid one), Vinyasa Yoga, Kripalu Yoga, Anuara Yoga, Kundalini Yoga, and Sivananda Yoga. As with Pilates, yoga on last year's survey was grouped within mind/body exercise. Both yoga and Pilates seem to be trends in themselves. Perhaps some of the forms of yoga (maybe the one performed in the hot and humid environment) are more fads than trends. It will be interesting to watch both the yoga and Pilates trends into the future.
ROUNDING OUT THE TOP 20
11. Exercise and weight loss
This is a trend toward incorporating all weight loss programs with a sensible exercise program. Most sensationalized diet programs incorporate some kind of exercise program into their daily routine. However, in 2008, the coupling of a diet (or diet pill) and exercise will become more important.
12. Spinning® (Indoor Cycling)
As an instructor describes the terrain, this group fitness program has been described as pedaling outdoors without changes in temperature, humidity, or other environmental changes. The pedal tension on the stationary bike is like riding up hill or through valleys. Often, upbeat background music helps to motivate people through this relatively high intensity workout.
13. Sport-specific training
This is a trend that incorporates sport-specific training especially for young athletes. For example, a high school athlete might join a commercial or community-based fitness organization to help develop skills during the off-season and to increase strength and endurance.
14. Balance training
Activities that promote balance include Tai Chi, yoga, and Pilates as well as exercise balls, wobble boards, the BOSU balls, and foam rollers. People work out in this unstable environment, predictably increasing balance and stability.
15. Group personal training
This trend expands the personal trainer's role from strictly one-on-one training to small group training. The personal trainer works with two or more people (but in a small group) and offers discounts for the group.
16. Outcome measurements
This is a trend toward accountability. After many years of just talking about outcomes, there will be efforts to define and track outcomes. Measurements are necessary to determine the benefits of health and fitness programs in disease management and to document success in changing negative lifestyle habits. The proliferation of technology will aid in data collection to support these efforts.
17. Comprehensive health promotion programming at the worksite
This is a trend toward a range of programs and services provided to improve the health of workers integrated with systems to support the evaluation and reporting of their impact on health, costs, and productivity.
18. Reaching new markets
This is a trend that identifies new markets in all aspects of the health/fitness industry. With an estimated 80% of Americans not having a regular exercise program or a place to exercise, commercial, clinical, corporate, and community programs will reach out to tap this huge market.
19. Worker incentive programs
This is a trend toward creating incentive programs to stimulate health behavior change as part of employer-based health promotion programming and health-care benefit design.
20. Wellness coaching
This is a trend to incorporate behavioral science into health promotion programs. Wellness coaching uses a one-on-one approach, with the coach providing support, guidance, and encouragement. The wellness coach focuses on the client's values, needs, vision, and goals.
As it did last year, the 2008 worldwide fitness trends revealed some interesting results. It is important to point out that the first three trends in our survey were separated by only 0.02 point when averaged. There was no clear No. 1 trend on the survey, although there was a more substantial separation between Nos. 3 and 4. In some respects, it supported the prediction that health and fitness professionals would be held to a higher level of education and certification. It will be interesting to watch how many academic programs become accredited by CAAHEP, how many fitness professionals migrate to national certifications that are accredited by the NCCA, and if state licensure for personal trainers catches on. As in the past, the four recognized sectors of the health and fitness industry (commercial, corporate, clinical, and community) will find these results to be beneficial when constructing new revenue sources, enhancing present programs, or reinforcing these trends with new and exciting ways to involve clients and patients. As in 2007, it will be most interesting to see if these trends hold true for 2008.
INTERNATIONAL EXPERTS COMMENT ON 2007 TRENDS
Aashish Contractor, M.D., Asian Heart Institute, Mumbai, India. "The results of this survey embody the ACSM slogan of 'bridging the gap between science and practice,' with educated and experienced fitness professionals leading the trends in 2008. This seems to be part of a larger trend worldwide, showing a gradual convergence between health, fitness, and medicine. This is borne out by the emphasis on childhood obesity, fitness programs for older adults, and strength training, as opposed to pure bodybuilding. It was a little disappointing to see 'outcome measurements,' and 'worksite health promotion,' drop in the rankings, probably reflecting a need to come up with more innovative and effective programs, which can be practically implemented. Congratulations are due to Dr. Thompson and his team for getting a very large sample size from all over the world."
Dino G. Costanzo, M.A., FACSM, The Hospital of Central Connecticut, New Britain, CT. "These survey results provide a real and substantial competitive advantage for those in the fitness industry looking for opportunities in program development. What is most impressive relative to this survey is the collective insight from nearly 2,000 diversified exercise professionals who stand in the trenches and see first hand, market and industry shifts. Most experts can be very successful forecasting yesterday's weather, but this survey allows anyone a forward look into the climate of the industry as it develops. Most reassuring from my perspective as ACSM's chair of the Committee on Certification and Registry Boards is the value given from the front-line practitioner toward credential and academic accreditation (No. 1 on this year's survey). ACSM has been proactive to this trend, has worked aggressively to secure accreditation from the National Commission for Certifying Agencies for all of its credentials, and has championed for academic accreditation through the Committee on Accreditation for the Exercise Sciences."
Nico Pronk, Ph.D., FACSM, FAWHP, HealthPartners, Minneapolis, MN. "Once again, as in 2006, ACSM shines the light on important trends in the health and fitness industry. These trends reflect a global perspective because the responders to the survey include professionals from many countries that reach across six continents. As such, it is interesting to note that there appears to be an emerging need (and perhaps demand) for higher professional standards as witnessed by the relatively high ranking of well-educated, experienced, and certified health and fitness professionals, considerations on licensure, and an increased focus on outcome measurements. These trends may well indicate that the health and fitness industry is evolving to a higher level of accountability. To me, these emerging trends represent an important new learning that will allow the industry to strongly position itself for the future while at the same time,as other noted trends in this survey reflect; there is an increasing need for services in populations that span between children and seniors."
Mary E. Sanders, Ph.D., FACSM, University of Nevada, Reno, NV. "Results of the survey frame an accurate picture of public health challenges that health and fitness professionals have an opportunity to embrace. I thought about the responses in categories: education, delivery systems, programs, and target groups. Serving as the foundation, evidence-based standardized education offers new opportunities to reduce the disparity in the health/fitness practice and improve public image of the health and fitness industry. Training programs or employers who offer practical experience through guided mentorship, for example, will further equip health/fitness professionals with 'best practices,' to provide responsive leadership for those with more complex health conditions. Individualized delivery systems such as personal and small group training that emphasize outcome measures have the potential to provide a bridge to data-based insurance reimbursement products and contribute to the body of understanding based on valuable field outcomes. Trends in wellness coaching provide integrated mind-body connection programs, so health leaders begin to understand people's behavior, a key area especially for motivating individuals who are not currently active or those faced with lifestyle barriers and health challenges. Fun programs identified in the survey such as strength, core, Pilates, spinning®, yoga, sports-specific, and balance training can serve as a 'gateway' to an active lifestyle, especially when skills are mastered for independent exercise, that meet the new ACSM guidelines (2007). Instructors should consider leadership education in these and other modalities (including water exercise or activities that 'fit in' to daily lives) that inspire youth, older adults, workers, and others to move. Our public health challenge, motivating people to adopt an active lifestyle, has never been greater, and the opportunity for health and fitness instructors to be part of the public health solution has never been better."
CONDENSED VERSION AND BOTTOM LINE
The 2008 worldwide survey of fitness trends helps the health and fitness industry make critical programming decisions. The results are applicable to commercial, clinical, corporate, and community fitness programs. Although no one has been able to accurately predict the future, this survey helps to track trends in the field that will help program directors and personal trainers make important business decisions.
The author thanks Editor-in-Chief Ed Howley, Ph.D., FACSM, for considering this project important enough to include in the year-end edition of ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal®. The author also thanks the ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal® editorial team, especially Paul Couzelis, Ph.D.; John Jakicic, Ph.D., FACSM; Nico Pronk, Ph.D., FACSM; Mike Spezzano, M.S.; Neal Pire, M.A., FACSM; Jim Peterson, Ph.D., FACSM; Melinda Manore, Ph.D., R.D., FACSM; Cary Wing, Ed.D.; Reed Humphrey, Ph.D., P.T., FACSM; and Steve Tharrett, M.S., for their very important input into the construction of the survey. Finally, the author also thanks the ACSM staff that supported this study by assisting in the construction, formatting, and delivery of it to thousands of fitness professionals around the world. In particular, the author recognizes the important contributions of D. Mark Robertson, Lori Tish, Mike Niederpruem, Hope Wood, Traci Rush, and Beth Muhlenkamp.