This article reviews the latest research in diabetes and exercise with a focus on athletic individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It examines the effects of exercise type, timing, and intensity on blood glucose levels and how to best manage glycemia for optimal performance, as well as how these exercise factors can impact thermoregulation and hydration. A discussion of how commonly prescribed medications can impact blood glucose levels, hydration, and electrolyte balance and how these can impact athletic performance also is included. Finally, use of the latest technologies by active individuals with diabetes is reviewed.
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