Not long ago, the muscle-building activity known as weight training generally was considered to be the domain of exceptionally strong men who competed in sports such as powerlifting, Olympic lifting, bodybuilding, and football. It was obvious that these athletes required high levels of strength and muscularity to excel in their chosen sport and that their mesomorphic physiques responded favorably to heavy resistance training with barbells and dumbbells. Average individuals saw no reason to engage in weight training, and participants in other sports typically felt that lifting weights actually would hinder their athletic performance.
As American lifestyle became more sedentary and heart disease became the leading cause of death, regular exercise was promoted for attaining physical fitness, desirable body weight, and cardiorespiratory health. However, the overwhelming emphasis was on aerobic activity with little encouragement for resistance training (29).
More recently, attention has been given to age-related muscle loss (68,95) and associated physiological problems such as bone loss (101), metabolic decline (142), fat gain (124), diabetes (46), metabolic syndrome (125), and all-cause mortality (45). Given the serious problem of sarcopenia in an increasingly sedentary and aging population (71), and the accumulating evidence that resistance exercise promotes muscle gains in men and women of all ages (144), it is understandable that leading researchers have advocated a public health mandate for sensible resistance training (109).
The series of events that seem to be associated with a large number of illnesses, injuries, and infirmities are 1) muscle loss, 2) leading to metabolic rate reduction, 3) followed by fat gain that places almost 80% of men and 70% of women 60 years of age and older in the undesirable categories of overweight or obese (47). These percentages are based on body mass index calculations that do not account for age-related sarcopenia (50). It is therefore likely that an even higher percentage of the older adult population has excess body fat (above 22% for males and above 32% for females) (4).
Muscle mass declines between 3% and 8% each decade after age 30 (46), averaging approximately 0.2 kg of lean weight loss per year (49,50). Muscle loss increases to 5% to 10% each decade after age 50 (95), averaging approximately 0.4 kg per year after the fifth decade of life (101). Skeletal muscle, which represents up to 40% of total body weight, influences a variety of metabolic risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (124). Muscle tissue is the primary site for glucose and triglyceride disposal, so muscle loss specifically increases the risk of glucose intolerance and associated health issues (38,46,124).
Muscle protein breakdown and synthesis largely are responsible for energy expenditure in resting muscle, which is approximately 11 to 12 cal·d−1·kg−1 of untrained muscle tissue (148). Consequently, muscle loss is the greatest contributor to the age-related decline in resting metabolic rate (108), which averages 2% to 3% per decade in adults (83). Because resting metabolism accounts for about 65% to 70% of daily calorie use among sedentary men and women, reduction of muscle mass and resting metabolic rate may be accompanied by increased fat weight (148).
Reversing Muscle Loss
Numerous studies have demonstrated that relatively brief sessions (e.g., 12 to 20 total exercise sets) of regular resistance training (two or three nonconsecutive days per week) can increase muscle mass in adults of all ages through the 10th decade of life (22,44,56,64,101,112,141,144). Many of these studies showed lean weight gains of about 1.4 kg following approximately 3 months of resistance training. A representative large-scale study with more than 1,600 participants between the ages of 21 and 80 years revealed a mean lean weight increase of 1.4 kg after 10 wk of resistance training incorporating 12 total exercise sets per session (144). Training frequencies of 2 and 3 d·wk−1 produced similar lean weight gains, and there were no significant differences in muscle development among any of the age groups.
Recharging Resting Metabolism
Resistance training stimulates increased muscle protein turnover (39) and actually has a dual impact on resting metabolic rate. First, as a chronic response, resistance training results in greater muscle mass that necessitates more energy at rest for ongoing tissue maintenance. A 1.0-kg increase in trained muscle tissue may raise resting metabolic rate by about 20 cal·d−1 (124). Second, as an acute response, resistance training causes tissue microtrauma that requires relatively large amounts of energy for muscle remodeling processes that may persist for 72 h after the training session. Research has shown significant increases in resting metabolic rate (approximately 7%) after several weeks of resistance training (17,22,64,89,112,137). However, more recent studies have revealed a similar elevation in resting energy expenditure (5% to 9%) for 3 d following a single session of resistance training (55,60). Participants who performed a high volume resistance workout (8 exercises × 8 sets each) averaged an 8% (trained subjects) to 9% (untrained subjects) increase in resting energy expenditure for 3 d after the exercise session (55). Beginning participants who performed either a moderate-volume resistance workout (10 exercises × 3 sets each) or a low-volume resistance workout (10 exercises × 1 set each) averaged a 5% increase in resting energy expenditure for 3 d after their respective exercise sessions (60). Based on the findings from these studies, regular resistance training may increase energy expenditure at rest by 100 cal·d−1 or more.
Reducing Body Fat
Excessive body fat is associated with risk factors such as elevated plasma cholesterol, plasma glucose, and resting blood pressure, which contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (94,124,146). In their review article, Strasser and Schobersberger (124) concluded that resistance training is recommended in the management of obesity and metabolic disorders. With respect to overall body fat, several resistance training studies that showed approximately 1.4 kg of lean weight gain also reported approximately 1.8 kg of fat weight loss (22,64,112,141,144).
With respect to abdominal adipose tissue, research has revealed significant reductions in intra-abdominal fat resulting from resistance training in older women (65,131) and older men (69,130) as well as only one-third as much visceral fat gain in premenopausal women over a 2-year study period (7% resistance trained vs 21% untrained) (116). Hurley et al. (68) have identified increased resting metabolic rate, improved insulin sensitivity, and enhanced sympathetic activity as possible means by which resistance training may decrease intra-abdominal fat stores.
Increased resting metabolic rate would seem to be a major factor in fat loss. A 20-min circuit resistance training program may require approximately 200 cal for every performance and may use 25% as many additional calories (50 cal) for recovery processes during the first hour following the workout (58). Furthermore, over the next 72 h, resting energy expenditure may remain elevated by 100 cal·d−1 for muscle remodeling processes (60). Assuming two 20-min circuit resistance training sessions a week, the associated energy utilization would approximate 5000 cal·mo−1 (eight workouts × 250 cal + 30 d × 100 cal).
Facilitating Physical Function
Aging is accompanied by a gradual reduction in physical function that negatively affects the ability to perform activities of daily living (143). Research has revealed that resistance training can reverse some of the debilitating effects associated with inactive aging, even in elderly individuals (44,56,129,141). In one study, nursing home residents (mean age = 89 years) performed one set of six resistance machine exercises, twice a week, for 14 wk. At the end of the training period, the participants increased their overall strength by 60%, added 1.7 kg of lean weight, and improved their functional independence measure by 14% (141). Other studies support resistance training by older adults for enhancing movement control (9), functional abilities (63,74), physical performance (61), and walking speed (115).
Resisting Type 2 Diabetes
As the obesity problem increases so does the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. It is predicted that by the middle of this century, one of three adults will have diabetes (15). In their review article on aging, resistance training, and diabetes prevention, Flack et al. (46) concluded that resistance training may be an effective intervention approach for middle-aged and older adults to counteract age-associated declines in insulin sensitivity and to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. This position is supported by numerous research studies, including those demonstrating improvements in insulin resistance and glycemic control (24,25,37,40,53,62). As presented in the previous section, resistance training also has been shown to reduce abdominal fat, which may be particularly important for diabetes prevention. This is because insulin resistance seems to be associated with abdominal fat accumulation in aging adults (28,84). Based on their literature review, Flack et al. (46) suggested that resistance training programs incorporating higher-volume and higher-intensity protocols may be more effective for improving insulin resistance and glucose tolerance compared with lower-volume and lower-intensity exercise protocols. This recommendation is consistent with the resistance training guidelines of the American Diabetes Association to exercise all major muscle groups, 3 d·wk−1, progressing to three sets of 8 to 10 repetitions at high intensity (122).
A meta-analysis by Strasser et al. (125) revealed that resistance training reduced visceral adipose tissue and decreased glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in people with abnormal glucose metabolism. The review authors concluded that resistance training should be recommended for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders (125).
According to Phillips and Winett (109), resistance training is associated with improved glucose and insulin homeostasis because of increases in muscle cross-sectional area and lean body mass, as well as qualitative improvements in muscle metabolic properties, including increases in the density of glucose transporter type 4, glycogen synthase content/activity, and insulin-mediated glucose clearance. There also is evidence that resistance training may be preferable to aerobic exercise for improving insulin sensitivity (21,40) and for lowering HbA1c (21).
Improving Cardiovascular Health
A 2011 literature review by Strasser and Schobersberger (124) concluded that, “resistance training is at least as effective as aerobic endurance training in reducing some major cardiovascular disease risk factors” (p. 6). The reported findings related to cardiovascular benefits of resistance training included improved body composition, mobilization of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat, reduced resting blood pressure, improved lipoprotein-lipid profiles, and enhanced glycemic control (124). This section addresses the effects of resistance training on three key physiological factors associated with cardiovascular health, namely, resting blood pressure, blood lipid profiles, and vascular condition.
Resting Blood Pressure
Approximately one-third of American adults have hypertension, which is a major factor in cardiovascular disease (106). Several studies have demonstrated reduced resting systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure following two or more months of standard resistance training or circuit style resistance training (25,67,76,121). One study reported resting blood pressure changes in more than 1,600 participants (ages 21 to 80 years) who performed 20 min of resistance training and 20 min of aerobic activity 2 or 3 d·wk−1 for a period of 10 wk (144). Subjects who trained twice a week significantly reduced resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings by 3.2 and 1.4 mm Hg, respectively. Those who trained 3 d·wk−1 significantly reduced resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings by 4.6 and 2.2 mm Hg, respectively. A study by Kelemen and Effron (75) also demonstrated significant blood pressure reductions from combined resistance training and endurance exercise.
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Kelley and Kelley (77) concluded that resistance training is effective for reducing resting blood pressure. A more recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found that blood pressure reductions associated with resistance training averaged −6.0 mm Hg systolic and −4.7 mm Hg diastolic and were comparable with those associated aerobic activity (31).
Blood Lipid Profiles
According to a recent report of the American Heart Association (91), approximately 45% of Americans have undesirable blood lipid profiles that increase their risk for cardiovascular disease. Several studies have shown beneficial effects on lipoprotein-lipid profiles resulting from resistance training (14,56,79,126,134,135), whereas other studies have not demonstrated significant changes in blood lipid levels (85,121). Some investigators have found that resistance training and aerobic activity produce similar effects on blood lipid profiles (13,121). A review by Kelley and Kelley (79) reported modest improvements in blood lipid profiles resulting from resistance training, with the exception of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which did not change significantly. According to the American College of Sports Medicine position stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults (3), there is evidence to suggest that resistance training may increase HDL cholesterol by 8% to 21%, decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 13% to 23%, and reduce triglycerides by 11% to 18% (p. 1519). In a study with elderly women (70 to 87 years of age), resistance training significantly improved triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol profiles (41). A 2009 review by Tambalis et al. (126) revealed resistance training to be an effective means for reducing LDL cholesterol, but there is evidence that combined resistance training and aerobic activity improves blood lipid profiles better than either exercise performed independently (110). After a careful review of the research literature and their own studies, Hurley et al. (68) suggested that lipoprotein-lipid responses to resistance training likely are to be genotype dependent, indicating that genetic factors may determine the degree to which resistance training influences blood lipid profiles (Table).
Vascular condition refers to the ability of arteries to accommodate blood flow, which directly affects blood pressure. Research studies are inconsistent regarding the effects of resistance training on vascular condition. Some studies indicate that resistance training reduces arterial compliance (32,99), some studies show no effect of resistance training on arterial compliance (93,113), while other research reveals enhanced vascular conductance and condition with resistance training (8,42,105). As Phillips and Winett (109) concluded in their literature review, further study is necessary to determine the relevant role of resistance training in vascular adaptations.
Based on the research reviewed, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health (16), as well as reduce the risk of predisposing metabolic syndrome (68,73,125,145). Although resistance training alone seems to provide cardiovascular benefits, a combination of resistance training and aerobic activity generally is recommended for healthy adults (16) and for older adults (3).
Resistance training also has been shown to produce positive effects in post coronary patients. Numerous studies indicate that resistance training is a safe and productive means for maintaining desirable body weight, increasing muscular strength, improving physical performance, and enhancing both self-concept and self-efficacy in cardiac patients (43,96,111,123).
Increasing Bone Mineral Density
According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, approximately 10 million American adults (8 million women) have osteoporosis, and almost 35 million others have insufficient bone mass or osteopenia (100). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that 30% of women and 15% of men will experience bone fractures due to osteoporosis (136). Research reveals that muscle loss (sarcopenia) is associated with bone loss (osteopenia) (2,11,66). Adults who do not perform resistance training may experience 1% to 3% reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) every year of life (80,101,140). Logically, exercise interventions that promote muscle gain also may be expected to increase BMD, and the majority of studies support this relationship. Several longitudinal studies have shown significant increases in BMD after 4 to 24 months of resistance training (34,36,52,72,81,82,92,98,101,103,138,150). A meta-analysis by Wolfe et al. (149) indicated that exercise programs prevented or reversed approximately 1% bone loss per year (femoral neck and lumbar spine) in adult and older adult women. A more recent review by Going and Laudermilk (51) revealed that resistance training increased BMD between 1% and 3% (femoral neck and lumbar spine) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Conversely, other longitudinal studies have failed to show significant increases in BMD following 4 to 32 months of resistance training (26,102,117,139,140). Cussler et al. (34) have identified several possible reasons for the inconsistent study results, including small sample sizes, short intervention periods, low completion rates, lack of randomized exercise assignments, and different resistance training intensities. Other variables that may influence BMD research results are growth hormone administration in men (150), hormone replacement therapy in women (52,72,98), dietary protein intake (30,128), and calcium and vitamin D supplementation (35,78).
A 2-year study by Kerr et al. (82) indicated that resistance training resulted in a 3.2% improvement in BMD compared with the control group. However, studies show that termination of the resistance training program leads to reversal of BMD gains (139,147).
Although much of the research on resistance training and bone density has been conducted with older women, there is evidence that young men may increase BMD by 2.7% to 7.7% through resistance training (1). The range of BMD change is related to different responses in different bones because the musculoskeletal effects of resistance training relatively are site specific (1,81,88).
The majority of studies in this area support the conclusion in Layne and Nelson’s (88) review that resistance training appears to be associated positively with high BMD in both younger and older adults and may have a more potent effect on bone density than other types of physical activity such as aerobic and weight bearing exercise (54).
Enhancing Mental Health
According to a comprehensive research review by O’Connor et al. (104), the mental health benefits of resistance training for adults include reduction of symptoms in people with fatigue, anxiety, and depression; pain alleviation in people with osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and low back issues; improvements in cognitive abilities in older adults; and improvements in self-esteem. While there is considerable evidence that appropriate resistance training reduces low back pain (59,90,114), arthritic discomfort (48,70,87), and pain associated with fibromyalgia (12,18,57), this section will address the effects of resistance training on cognition and psychological measures.
Concerning cognition, much of the research has been conducted with older adults, and most of the studies have featured endurance exercise alone or combined aerobic activity and resistance training (104). However, studies using only resistance training interventions have shown significant improvement in cognitive abilities (20,23,86). In a meta-analysis by Colcombe and Kramer (27), aerobic activity plus resistance training produced significantly greater cognitive improvement in inactive older adults than aerobic activity alone.
According to O’Connor et al. (104), self-esteem, as a global concept of one’s perception of himself or herself, relatively is stable over time and less likely to be affected by physical training than other psychological measures. Nonetheless, positive changes in self-esteem as a result of resistance training have been reported in older adults (133), younger adults (132), women (19), cancer patients (33), and participants of cardiac rehabilitation (10).
With respect to other psychological measures, studies by Annesi et al. (5–7) have shown 10 wk of combined resistance training and aerobic activity to improve significantly physical self-concept, total mood disturbance, depression, fatigue, positive engagement, revitalization, tranquility, and tension in adults and older adults.
Depression is a serious mental health issue that may be associated with decreased functionality, especially in older adults (143). In their comprehensive review, O’Connor et al. (104) noted that at least four studies have examined the effects of resistance training on depression levels in clinically depressed individuals, and at least 18 studies have examined the effects of resistance training on depression symptoms in healthy adults or adults with medical problems. Although these trials produced mixed results, the review authors concluded that there was sufficient evidence to support resistance training as an effective intervention for reducing depression symptoms in adults with depression (104).
Singh et al. (118–120) have researched the effects of resistance training on depression in elderly individuals. In a classic study, they found that more than 80% of the depressed elders who performed three weekly sessions of resistance training were no longer clinically depressed after just 10 wk of exercise (118). Based on these studies, it would appear that resistance training is associated with reduced depression levels in older adults.
Reversing Aging Factors
Finally, some interesting research has been conducted on resistance training effects on muscle mitochondrial content and function. There is evidence that circuit (short rest) resistance training can increase both the mitochondrial content and the oxidative capacity of muscle tissue (107,108,127). Another study, using standard resistance training, showed a reversal in mitochondrial deterioration that typically occurs with aging (97). After 6 months of resistance training, the older adult participants (mean age of 68 years) experienced gene expression reversal that resulted in mitochondrial characteristics similar to those in moderately active young adults (mean age of 24 years). The favorable changes observed in 179 genes associated with age and exercise led the researchers to conclude that resistance training can reverse aging factors in skeletal muscle (97).
This review provides evidence that resistance training is effective in enhancing several important aspects of physical and mental health. Beginning with the progressive reduction in muscle mass and resting metabolism associated with inactive aging, resistance training studies have consistently demonstrated significant increases in lean weight and metabolic rate, accompanied by significant decreases in fat weight. In the multiple areas that involve physical performance, resistance training has been associated with reduced low back pain, decreased arthritic discomfort, increased functional independence, enhanced movement control, and increased walking speed. Based on numerous studies that showed improved glucose and insulin homeostasis, resistance training has been recommended for resisting type 2 diabetes. With respect to cardiovascular health, resistance training research has demonstrated reduced resting blood pressure, improved blood lipid profiles, and enhanced vascular condition. Resistance training appears to have greater impact on bone density than other types of physical activity and has been shown to significantly increase BMD in adults of all ages. The demonstrated mental health benefits of resistance training have included decreased symptoms of depression, increased self-esteem and physical self-concept, and improved cognitive ability. Finally and fundamentally, resistance training has been shown to reverse aging factors in skeletal muscle.
The author declares no conflict of interest and does not have any financial disclosures.
1. Almstedt HC, Canepa JA, Ramirez DA, Shoepe TC. Changes in bone mineral density in response to 24 weeks of resistance training in college-age men and women. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2011; 25: 1098–103.
2. Aloia J, McGowan D, Vaswani A, et al.. Relationship of menopause to skeletal and muscle mass. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1991; 53: 1378–83.
3. American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand: exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 1510–30.
4. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2010. p. 71.
5. Annesi J, Westcott W. Relationship of feeling states after exercise and total mood disturbance over 10 weeks in formerly sedentary women. Percept. Mot. Skills. 2004; 99: 107–15.
6. Annesi J, Westcott W, La Rosa Loud R, Powers L. Effects of association and dissociation formats on resistance exercise-induced emotion change and physical self-concept in older women. J. Mental Health Aging. 2004; 10: 87–98.
7. Annesi J, Westcott W. Relations of physical self-concept and muscular strength with resistance exercise-induced feeling states in older women. Percept. Mot. Skills. 2007; 104: 183–90.
8. Anton M, Cortez-Cooper M, Devan A, et al.. Resistance training increases basal limb blood flow and vascular conductance in aging humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 2006; 101: 1351–5.
9. Barry B, Carson R. The consequences of resistance training for movement control in older adults. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2004; 59: 730–54.
10. Beniamini Y, Rubenstein JJ, Zaichowsky LO, Crim MC. Effects of high intensity strength training on quality of life parameters in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Am. J. Cardiol. 1997; 80: 841–6.
11. Bevier W, Wiswell R, Pyka G, et al.. Relationship of body composition, muscle strength, and aerobic capacity to bone mineral density in older men and women. J. Bone Miner. Res. 1989; 4: 421–32.
12. Bircan C, Karasel SA, Akgun B, et al.. Effects of muscle strengthening versus aerobic exercise program in fibromyalgia. Rheumatol. Int. 2008; 28: 527–32.
13. Blessing D, Stone M, Byrd R. Blood lipid and hormonal changes from jogging and weight training of middle-aged men. J. Appl. Sport Sci. Res. 1987; 1: 25–9.
14. Boyden T, Pamenter R, Going S, et al.. Resistance exercise training is associated with decreases in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in pre-menopausal women. Arch. Inter. Med. 1993; 153: 97–100.
15. Boyle JP. Projection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalence. Popul. Health Metr. 2010; 8: 29.
16. Braith R, Stewart K. Resistance exercise training: its role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2006; 113: 2642–50.
17. Broeder C, Burrhus K, Svanevik L, Wilmore J. The effects of either high-intensity resistance or endurance training on resting metabolic rate. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992; 55: 802–10.
18. Brosseau I, Wells GA, Tugwell P, et al.. Ottawa Panel evidence-based clinical practical guidelines for strengthening exercises in the management of fibromyalgia: part 2. Phys. Ther. 2008; 88: 873–86.
19. Brown RD, Harrison JM. The effects of a strength training program on the strength and self-concept of two female age groups. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport. 1986; 57: 315–20.
20. Busse AL, Filo WJ, Magaldi RM, et al.. Effects of resistance training exercise on cognitive performance in elderly individuals with memory impairment: results of a controlled trial. Einstein. 2008; 6: 402–7.
21. Bweir S, Al-Jarrah M, Almalty AM, et al.. Resistance exercise training lowers HbA1c
more than aerobic training in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diab. Metab. Syndr. 2009; 1: 27.
22. Campbell WW, Crim MC, Young VR, Evans WJ. Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 60: 167–75.
23. Cassilhas RC, Viana VAR, Grasmann V, et al.. The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2007; 39: 1401–7.
24. Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munez-Orians L, et al.. A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25: 2335–41.
25. Cauza E, Strasser B, Haber P, et al.. The relative benefits of endurance and strength training on metabolic factors and muscle function of people with type 2 diabetes. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab. 2005; 86: 1527–33.
26. Chilibeck P, Calder A, Sale D, Webber C. Twenty weeks of weight training increases lean tissue mass but not bone mineral mass or density in healthy, active women. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmocol. 1996; 74: 1180–5.
27. Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study. Phychol. Sci. 2003; 14: 125–30.
28. Coon PJ, Rogus EM, Drinkwater D, et al.. Role of body fat distribution in the decline in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with age. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1992; 75: 1125–32.
29. Cooper KH. Aerobics. New York (NY): Bantam Books; 1968.
30. Cooper C, Atkinson E, Hensuid R, et al.. Dietary protein intake and bone mass in women. Calcif. Tissue Int. 1996; 58: 320–5.
31. Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH. Effect of resistance training on resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Hypertens. 2005; 23: 251–9.
32. Cortez-Cooper MY, Devan AE, Anton MM, et al.. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness and wave reflection in women. Am. J. Hypertens. 2005; 18: 930–4.
33. Courneya KS, Segal RJ, Mackey JR, et al.. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 2007; 25: 4396–404.
34. Cussler E, Lohman T, Going S, et al.. Weight lifted in strength training predicts bone change in postmenopausal women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2003; 35: 10–7.
35. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris S. Calcium intake influences the association of protein intake with rates of bone loss in elderly men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002; 75: 773–9.
36. Dornemann T, Mc Murray R, Renner J, Anderson J. Effects of high intensity resistance exercise on bone mineral density and muscle strength of 40-50 year-old women. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness. 1997; 37: 246–51.
37. Dunstan DW, Daly RM, Owen N, et al.. High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25: 1729–36.
38. Dutta C, Hadley EC. The significance of sarcopenia in old age. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 1995; 50: 1–4.
39. Evans WJ. Protein nutrition and resistance exercise. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 2001; 26: S141–52.
40. Eves ND, Plotnikoff RC. Resistance training and type 2 diabetes: considerations for implementation at the population level. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 1933–41.
41. Fahlman MM, Boardly D, Lambert CP, Flynn MG. Effects of endurance training and resistance training on plasma lipoprotein profiles in elderly women. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2002; 57: B54–B60.
42. Fahs C, Heffernan K, Ranadive S, et al.. Muscular strength is inversely associated with aortic stiffness in young men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2010; 42: 1619–24.
43. Faigenbaum A, Skrinar G, Cesare W, et al.. Physiologic and symptomatic responses of cardiac patients to resistance exercise. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab. 1990; 70: 395–8.
44. Fiatarone MA, Marks E, Ryan N, et al.. High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians. JAMA. 1990; 263: 3029–34.
45. Fitzgerald SJ, Blair S. Muscular fitness and all-cause mortality: prospective observations. J. Phys. Act. Health. 2004; 1: 17–8.
46. Flack KD, Davy KP, Huber MAW, et al.. Aging, resistance training, and diabetes prevention. J. Aging Res. 2011; 2011: 127315.
47. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, et al.. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA. 2010; 303: 235–41.
48. Focht BC. Effectiveness of exercise interventions in reducing pain symptoms among older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a review. J. Aging Phys. Act. 2006; 14: 212–35.
49. Forbes GB, Halloran E. The adult decline in lean body mass. Hum. Biol. 1976; 48: 161–73.
50. Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fiatarone MA, et al.. Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J. Appl. Physiol. 2000; 88: 1321–6.
51. Going S, Laudermilk M. Osteoporosis and strength training. Am. J. Lifestyle Med. 2009; 3: 310–9.
52. Going S, Lohman T, Houtkooper L, et al.. Effects of exercise on BMD in calcium replete postmenopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy. Osteoporos. Int. 2003; 14: 637–43.
53. Gordon B, Benson A, Bird S, Fraser S. Resistance training improves metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diab. Res. Clin. Pract. 2009; 83: 157–75.
54. Gutin B, Kasper MJ. Can exercise play a role in osteoporosis prevention? A review. Osteoporos. Int. 1992; 2: 55–69.
55. Hackney KJ, Engels HJ, Gretebeck RJ. Resting energy expenditure and delayed-onset muscle soreness after full-body resistance training with an eccentric concentration. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2008; 22: 1602–9.
56. Hagerman F, Walsh S, Staron R, et al.. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on untrained older men: strength, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2000; 55: 8336–46.
57. Hakkinen A, Hakkinen K, Hannonen P, Alen M. Strength training induced adaptations in neuromuscular function of premenopausal women and fibromyalgia: comparison with healthy women. Ann. Rheum. Res. 2001; 60: 21–6.
58. Haltom RW, Kraemer RR, Sloan RA, et al.. Circuit weight training and its effects on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1999; 31: 1613–8.
59. Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Tomlinson G. Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain. Ann. Intern. Med. 2005; 142: 776–85.
60. Heden T, Lox C, Rose P, et al.. One-set resistance training elevates energy expenditure for 72 hours similar to three sets. Eur. J. App. Physiol. 2011; 111: 477–84.
61. Henwood TR, Taaffe DR. Improved physical performance in older adults undertaking a short-term programme of high-velocity resistance training. Gerontology. 2005; 51: 108–15.
62. Holten MK, Zacho M, Gaster C, et al.. Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2004; 53: 294–305.
63. Holviala JH, Sullivan JM, Kraemer WJ, et al.. Effects of strength training on muscle strength characteristics, functional capabilities, and balance in middle-aged and older women. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2006; 20: 336–44.
64. Hunter GR, Wetzstein CJ, Fields DA, et al.. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults. J. Appl. Physiol. 2000; 89: 977–84.
65. Hunter GR, Bryan DR, Wetzstein CJ, et al.. Resistance training and intra-abdominal adipose tissue in older men and women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2002; 34: 1025–8.
66. Hurley B. Strength training in the elderly to enhance health status. Med. Exerc. Nutr. Health. 1995; 4: 217–29.
67. Hurley B, Roth S. Strength training in the elderly: effects on risk factors for age-related diseases. Sports Med. 2000; 30: 249–68.
68. Hurley BF, Hanson ED, Sheaff AK. Strength training as a countermeasure to aging muscle and chronic disease. Sports Med. 2011; 41: 289–306.
69. Ibanez J, Izquierdo M, Arguelles I, et al.. Twice weekly progressive resistance training decreases abdominal fat and improves insulin sensitivity in older men with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28: 662–7.
70. Jan M, Lin J, Liau J, et al.. Investigation of clinical effects of high- and low-resistance training for patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Phys. Ther. 2008; 88: 427–36.
71. Janssen I, Shepard DS, Katzmarzyk PK, Roubenoff R. The health care costs of sarcopenia in the United States. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2004; 52: 80–5.
72. Judge J, Kleppinger A, Kenny A, et al.. Home-based resistance training improves femoral bone mineral density in women on hormone therapy. Osteoporos. Int. 2005; 16: 1096–108.
73. Jurca R, Lamonte MJ, Barlow CE, et al.. Association of muscular strength with incidence of metabolic syndrome in men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: 1849–55.
74. Kalapotharakos V, Michalpoulos M, Tokmakisis S, et al.. Effects of heavy and moderate resistance training on functional performance in older adults. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2005; 19: 652–7.
75. Kelemen MH, Effron MB. Exercise training combined with antihypertensive drug therapy. JAMA. 1990; 263: 2766–71.
76. Kelley G. Dynamic resistance exercise and resting blood pressure in healthy adults: a meta-analysis. J. Appl. Physiol. 1997; 82: 1559–65.
77. Kelley G, Kelley K. Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension. 2000; 35: 838–43.
78. Kelley G, Kelley K, Tran Z. Exercise and lumbar spine bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2002; 57: M599–604.
79. Kelley G, Kelley K. Impact of progressive resistance training on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Prev. Med. 2009; 48: 9–19.
80. Kemmler WS, Von Stengel S, Weineck J, et al.. Exercise effects on menopausal risk factors of early postmenopausal women: 3-yr Erlangen fitness osteoporosis prevention study results. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: 194–203.
81. Kerr D, Morton A, Dick I, Prince R. Exercise effects on bone mass in post-menopausal women are site-specific and load-dependent. J. Bone Miner. Res. 1996; 11: 218–25.
82. Kerr D, Ackland T, Masten B, et al.. Resistance training over 2 years increases bone mass in calcium-replete postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2001; 16: 175–81.
83. Keys A, Taylor HL, Grande F. Basal metabolism and age of adult man. Metabolism. 1973; 22: 579–87.
84. Kohrt WM, Kirwan JP, Staten MA, et al.. Insulin resistance in aging is related to abdominal obesity. Diabetes. 1993; 42: 273–81.
85. Kokkinos P, Hurley B, Vaccaro P. Effects of low and high repetition resistive training on lipoprotein–lipid profiles. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1998; 29: 50–4.
86. Lackmann ME, Neupert SD, Betrand R, Jette AM. The effects of strength training on memory of older adults. J. Aging Phys. Act. 2006; 14: 59–73.
87. Lange A, Vanwanseele B, Fiatarone Singh M. Strength training for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review. Arthritis Rheum. 2008; 59: 1488–94.
88. Layne J, Nelson M. The effects of progressive resistance training on bone density: a review. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1999; 31: 25–30.
89. Lemmer J, Ivey F, Ryan A, et al.. Effect of strength training on resting metabolic rate and physical activity. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001; 33: 532–41.
90. Liddle SD, Baxter GD, Gracey JI. Exercise and chronic low back pain: what works? Pain. 2004; 107: 176–90.
91. Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Carnethon M, et al.. Heart disease and stroke statistics: 2009 update. A report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2009; 119: 480–6.
92. Lohman T, Going S, Pamenter R, et al.. Effects of resistance training on regional and total BMD in premenopausal women: a randomized prospective study. J. Bone Miner. Res. 1995; 10: 1015–24.
93. Maeda S, Otsuki T, Iemitsu M, et al.. Effects of leg resistance training on arterial function in older men. Br. J. Sports Med. 2006; 40: 867–9.
94. Maggio CA, Pi-Sunyer FX. Obesity and type 2 diabetes. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. 2003; 32: 805–22.
95. Marcell TJ. Sarcopenia: causes, consequences, and preventions. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2003; 58: M911–6.
96. Marzolini S, Oh P, Thomas S, Goodman J. Aerobic and resistance training in coronary disease: single versus multiple sets. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2008; 40: 1557–64.
97. Melov S, Tarnopolsky M, Beckman K, et al.. Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle. PLoS One. 2007; 2: e465.
98. Milliken L, Going S, Houtkooper L, et al.. Effects of exercise training on bone remodeling, insulin-like growth factors, and BMD in post-menopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy. Calcif. Tissue Int. 2003; 72: 478–84.
99. Miyachi M, Kawano H, Sugawara J, et al.. Unfavorable effects of resistance training on central arterial compliance: a randomized intervention study. Circulation. 2004; 110: 2858–63.
101. Nelson ME, Fiatarone M, Morganti C., et al.. Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. JAMA. 1994; 272: 1909–14.
102. Nichols J, Nelson K, Peterson K, Sartoris D. BMD responses to high intensity strength training in active older women. J. Aging Phys. Act. 1995; 3: 26–8.
103. Nickols-Richardson S, Miller L, Wootten D, et al.. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic resistance training similarly increases muscular strength, fat-free soft tissue mass, and specific bone mineral measurements in young women. Osteoporos. Int. 2007; 18: 789–96.
104. O’Connor PJ, Herring MP, Caravalho A. Mental health benefits of strength training in adults. Am. J. Lifestyle Med. 2010; 4: 377–396.
105. Olson J, Dengel D, Leon A., Schmitz K. Moderate resistance training and vascular health in overweight women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2006; 38: 1558–64.
106. Ong KL, Cheung BMY, Man YB, et al.. Hypertension treatment and control: prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among United States adults 1999–2004. Hypertension. 2007; 49: 69–75.
107. Parise G, Brose A, Tarnopolsky M. Resistance exercise training decreases oxidative damage to DNA and increases cytochrome oxidase activity in older adults. Exp. Gerontol. 2005; 40: 173–80.
108. Phillips SM. Resistance exercise: good for more than just grandma and grandpa’s muscles. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2007; 32: 1198–205.
109. Phillips SM, Winett RA. Uncomplicated resistance training and health-related outcomes: evidence for a public health mandate. Curr. Sports Med. Rep. 2010; 9: 208–13.
110. Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB, Tambalis KD, et al.. Resistance exercise plus aerobic activities is associated with better lipids profile among healthy individuals: the ATTIICA study. QJM. 2009; 102: 609–16.
111. Pollock ML, Franklin BA, Balady GL, et al.. AHA Science Advisory. Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: benefits, rationale, safety, and prescription: an advisory from the Committee on Exercise Rehabilitation, and Prevention, Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association; Position paper endorsed by the American College of Sports Medicine. Circulation. 2000; 101: 828–33.
112. Pratley R, Nicklas B, Rubin M, et al.. Strength training increases resting metabolic rate and norepinephrine levels in healthy 50- to 65-year-old men. J. Appl. Physiol. 1994; 76: 133–7.
113. Rakobowchuk M, McGowan CL, DeGroot PC, et al.. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men. Exp. Physiol. 2005; 90: 645–51.
114. Risch S, Norvell N, Polock M, et al.. Lumbar strengthening in chronic low back pain patients. Spine. 1993; 18: 232–8.
115. Schlicht J, Camaione DN, Owen SV. Effect of intense strength training on standing balance, walking speed, and sit-to-stand performance in older adults. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2001; 56: M281–6.
116. Schmitz KH, Hannan PJ, Stovitz SD, et al.. Strength training and adiposity in premenopausal women: strong, healthy, and empowered study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007; 86: 566–72.
117. Sinaki M, Wahner H, Bergstralh E, et al.. Three-year controlled, randomized trial of the effect of dose-specified loading and strengthening exercises on BMD on spine and femur in non-athletic, physically active women. Bone. 1996; 19: 233–44.
118. Singh NA, Clements KM, Fiatarone MA. A randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance exercise in depressed elders. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 1997; 52: M27–35.
119. Singh NA, Clements KM, Singh MA. The efficacy of exercise as a long-term antidepressant in elderly subjects: a randomized, controlled trial. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2001; 56: M497–504.
120. Singh NA, Stavrinos TM, Scarbek Y, et al.. A randomized controlled trial of high vs low intensity weight training versus general practitioner care for clinical depression in older adults. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2005; 60: 768–76.
121. Smutok M, Reece C, Kokkinos P, et al.. Aerobic vs. strength training for risk factor intervention in middle-aged men at high risk for coronary heart disease. Metabolism. 1993; 42: 177–84.
122. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: S4–42.
123. Stewart K, Mason M, Kelemen M. Three-year participation in circuit weight training improves muscular strength and self-efficacy in cardiac patients. J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil. 1988; 8: 292–6.
124. Strasser B, Schobersberger W. Evidence of resistance training as a treatment therapy in obesity. J. Obes. 2011; 2011: 482564.
125. Strasser B, Siebert U, Schobersberger W. Resistance training in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Sports Med. 2010; 40: 397–415.
126. Tambalis K, Panagiotakos D, Kavouras S, Sidossis L. Responses of blood lipids to aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic with resistance exercise training: a systematic review of current evidence. Angiology. 2009; 60: 614–32.
127. Tang J, Hartman J, Phillips S. Increased muscle oxidative potential following resistance training induced fiber hypertrophy in young men. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2006; 31: 495–501.
128. Thorpe M, Jacobson E, Layman D., et al.. A diet high in protein, dairy, and calcium attenuates bone loss over 12 months of weight loss and maintenance relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate diet in adults. J. Nutr. 2008; 138: 1096–100.
129. Trappe S, Williamson D, Godard M, Gallagher P. Maintenance of whole muscle strength and size following resistance training in older men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001; 33: S147.
130. Treuth MS, Ryan AS, Pratley RE, et al.. Effects of strength training on total and regional body composition in older men. J. Appl. Physiol. 1994; 77: 614–20.
131. Treuth MS, Hunter GR, Kekes-Szabo T, et al.. Reduction in intra-abdominal adipose tissue after strength training in older women. J. Appl. Physiol. 1995; 78: 1425–31.
132. Trujillo CM. The effect of weight training and running intervention programs on the self-esteem of college women. Int. J. Sport Psychol. 1983; 14: 162–73.
133. Tsutsumi T, Don BM, Zaichkowsky LD, et al.. Comparison of high and moderate intensity of strength training on mood and anxiety in older adults. Percept. Mot. Skills. 1998; 87: 1003–11.
134. Tucker LA, Silvester LJ. Strength training and hypercholesterolemia: an epidemiologic study of 8499 employed men. Am. J. Health Promot. 1996; 11: 35–41.
135. Ulrich I, Reid C, Yeater R. Increased HDL-cholesterol levels with a weight training program. Southern Med. J. 1987; 80: 328–31.
136. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; 2004.
137. Van Etten L, Westerterp K, Verstappen F, et al.. Effect of an 18-week weight-training program on energy expenditure and physical activity. J. Appl. Physiol. 1997; 82: 298–304.
138. Von Stengel S, Kemmler W, Kalender W, et al.. Differential effects of strength versus power training on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a 2-year longitudinal study. Br. J. Sports Med. 2007; 41: 649–55.
139. Vuori I, Heinonen A, Sievanen H, et al.. Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on BMD and content in young women: a study of mechanical loading and deloading on human bones. Calcif. Tissue Int. 1994; 54–67.
140. Warren M, Petit A, Hannan P, Schmitz K. Strength training effects on bone mineral content and density in premenopausal women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2008; 40: 1282–8.
141. Westcott W. Strength training for frail older adults. J Active Aging. 2009; 8: 52–9.
142. Westcott WL. Effects of strength training on resting energy expenditure. ACSM Cert. News. 2010; 20: 10–1.
143. Westcott WL, Faigenbaum AD. Clients who are preadolescent, older, or pregnant. In: Coburn JW, Malek MH, editors. NSCA’s Essentials of Personal Training. 2nd ed. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; 2011. p. 470–87.
144. Westcott WL, Winett RA, Annesi JJ, et al.. Prescribing physical activity: applying the ACSM protocols for exercise type, intensity, and duration across 3 training frequencies. Phys. Sportsmed. 2009; 2: 51–8.
145. Winjdaele K, Duvigneaud N, Matton L, et al.. Muscular strength, aerobic fitness, and metabolic syndrome risk in Flemish adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.. 2007; 39: 233–40.
146. Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Sullivan L, et al.. Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Arch. Intern. Med. 2002; 162: 1867–72.
147. Winters KM, Snow C.M. Detraining reverses positive effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system in premenopausal women. J. Bone. Miner. Res. 2000; 15: 2495–503.
148. Wolfe RR. The unappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006; 84: 475–82.
149. Wolfe I, Van Cronenbourg J, Kemper H, et al.. The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass: a meta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre and post-menopausal women. Osteoporos. Int. 1999; 9: 1–12.
150. Yarasheski K, Campbell J, Kohrt W. Effect of resistance exercise and growth hormone on bone density in older men. Clin. Endocrinol. 1997; 47: 223–9.