Despite the passage of time, masters athletes are still capable of incredible performances. Nevertheless, overuse injuries are the most common challenge in this escalating cohort. The incidence of exertion-related cardiovascular events is also greater among older athletes, especially men, highlighting the importance of a thorough preparticipation medical evaluation before entry into senior athletic training programs and competition. Accordingly, masters athletes with a moderate to high risk for coronary artery disease, who desire to enter vigorous competitive events, should undergo peak or symptom-limited exercise testing. Training programs for senior athletes should be individually tailored and focus on the predominant energy pathways and performance requirements for a given sport. Although competition and “personal bests” are important, protection against sickness and disability are increasingly listed as the primary participative motives of older athletes.