With the increase in participation sports comes an increased prevalence of sports injuries. Injuries of the shoulder and knee present the sports medicine practitioner with the challenge of obtaining a proper diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment. Commonly misdiagnosed injuries to the shoulder and knee include anterior cruciate ligament injuries, patella subluxation/dislocation, and labral injuries. This article provides insight into obtaining a detailed history, performing a focused physical examination, and understanding the pathoanatomy of the affected joints in order to help avoid misdiagnosis of these complex injuries. These skills can aid practitioners to better meet the needs of the high school, college, professional, and recreational athlete.