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Cover Note

Cover Note: The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Rodgers, Joann

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The December Cover Note stated that the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, which opened in 1893, “was the first to admit women to what would become a research-intensive, highly selective medical school.” This statement is technically true, but readers should be aware that the first woman to earn a degree at a medical school in the United States was Elizabeth Blackwell, MD, who graduated from Geneva Medical College in New York in 1849. The numbers of women medical school graduates grew from there, reaching an estimated 300 by 1859.

In 1870, the medical schools at the University of Michigan and the State University of Iowa began to admit women. By the time Johns Hopkins opened its doors, at least 35 schoolswere coeducational and more than 5,000 women were engaged in medical practice in the United States. However, Hopkins, because of its stature in medical education, did influence other medical schools to admit women, even though it was clearly not the first to do so.

The editors thank Cynthia R. Kahn, Reference Librarian for the AAMC, for finding the information presented in this Correction. Her eLetter and another one about the topic of this Correction may be found by going to the journal's Website, 〈〉, and clicking on “Responses to Recent Articles.”

Academic Medicine. 80(4):394, April 2005.

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (Hopkins) opened in 1893, four years after The Johns Hopkins Hospital opened, a fortuitous delay that bought time to assemble a renowned faculty and prepare a new course of study that took medical education out of the realm of proprietary, for-profit trade schooling and placed it on sound academic footing. Hopkins was the first to admit women to what would become a research-intensive, highly selective medical school, the first to demand concentrated “premed” training to gain admission, and the first to integrate rigorous basic science education with extensive clinical mentoring. From its inception, Hopkins required professors in the preclinical branches to serve full-time, a move that provided faculty the opportunity to both follow their own research inclinations and motivate students.

The original faculty, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch, designed an innovative curriculum, laying the groundwork for intern and residency training in American hospitals. This so-called Hopkins Model was quickly adopted by virtually every U.S. medical school. Besides curricular innovations, they continued developing advances in medicine and introducing them to the bedside.

In a landmark decision in 1997, Hopkins trustees formed Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM), an operational fusion of the school, the hospital, and the health system to be led by a dean/CEO with broad new authority to further integrate and align the teaching, research, and patient care missions. Today, within this novel business and academic framework, the school's 2,150 full-time and 1,200 part-time faculty instruct more than 3,100 medical and graduate students, housestaff, and fellows. Within the past 18 months, as JHM scientists moved into a new $140-million research building, JHM rolled out more details of its planned $1.2-billion, ten-year campus expansion and renovation already underway, and watched Peter Agre accept the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his groundbreaking discovery of aquaporins.

By design, JHM blurs the lines between learning and teaching, fostering a culture of collegiality and discovery, along with excellence in clinical medicine. In just over a century, scientists at Hopkins have been responsible for advances in the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the Nobel Prize-winning discovery of restriction enzymes that ushered in the era of genetic engineering, the identification of sites in the brain where opiates act, the development of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy surgery, the first clinically useful argon photocoagulator, the isolation and cultivation of human embryonic stem cells, discovery of the genetic alteration linked to common forms of colon cancer, and isolation of the “Hedgehog” gene, which carries the blueprint for crucial developmental signaling.

Looking forward, Johns Hopkins Medicine is leading the way in developing new models of research, education, and safety-conscious, evidence-based care, along with clinical services that fully exploit discoveries in genomics, proteomics, epigenetics, and cell engineering.

For more information about The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, visit 〈〉.

Joann Rodgers

Deputy Director

Director of Media Relations and Executive Communications

Johns Hopkins Medicine

Office of Corporate Communications

© 2004 Association of American Medical Colleges