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APPENDICES

APPENDIX 2

RESOURCES FOR REVIEWERS

 Task Force of Academic Medicine and the GEARIME Committee

Author Information
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Review Process

Armstrong JS. Research on scientific journals: implications for editors and authors. J Forecasting. 1982;1:83–104.

Bligh J. What happens to manuscripts submitted to the journal? Med Educ. 1998;32:567–70.

Chubin DE, Hackett EJ. Peer review and the printed word. In: Chubin DE, Hackett EJ. Peerless Science: Peer Review and U.S. Science Policy. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1990.

Freedman DX. Chapter 10: Editorial processes, safeguards, and remedies. In: Miller DJ, Hersen M (eds). Research Fraud in the Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992.

Hargens LL. Variation in journal peer review systems: possible causes and consequences. JAMA. 1990;263:1348–52.

Knoll E. The communities of scientists and journal peer review. JAMA. 1990;263:1330–2.

National Research Press. Part 4: Responsibilities. In: Publication Policy. 〈http://www.monographs.nrc.ca/cgi-bin/cisti/journals/rp/rp2_cust_e?pubpolicy〉. Accessed 6/5/01.

Weller AC. Editorial peer review in US medical journals. JAMA. 1990; 263:1344–7.

Selection and Qualities of Reviewers

Siegelman SS. Assassins and zealots: variations in peer review. special report. Radiology. 1991;178:637–42.

Publication Decision

National Research Press. Part 4: Responsibilities. In: Publication Policy. 〈http://www.monographs.nrc.ca/cgi-bin/cisti/journals/rp/rp2_cust_e?pubpolicy〉. Accessed 6/5/01.

Siegelman SS. Assassins and zealots: variations in peer review. special report. Radiology. 1991;178:637–42.

Manuscript Revision and Final Editing

Browner WS. Chapter 13: Choosing a Journal and Responding to Reviewers' Comments. In: Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999:153–63 [esp. 158–63].

Day RA. Chapter 17: The review process (how to deal with editors). In: How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. 5th ed. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1998:98–110 [esp. 105–10].

Morgan P. How the editor works! In: An Insider's Guide for Medical Authors and Editors. Philadelphia, PA: ISI Press, 1986:67–83 [esp. 67–73].

Morgan P. Dealing with the editor. In: An Insider's Guide for Medical Authors and Editors. Philadelphia, PA: ISI Press, 1986:84–92.

Tornquist EM. From Proposal to Publication: An Informal Guide to Writing about Nursing Research. Menlo Park, CA: Addison—Wesley, 1986.

Problem Statement, Conceptual Framework, and Research Question

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA, 1994:11–2.

Creswell JW. Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994:1–16.

Day RA. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. 5th ed. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1998:33–5.

Erlandson DA, Harris EL, Skipper BL, Allen SD. Doing Naturalistic Inquiry: A Guide to Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993:42–65.

Glesne C, Peshkin A. Becoming Qualitative Researchers: An Introduction. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group, 1992:13–37.

Reference to the Literature and Documentation

Bartz C. It all starts with an idea. Alzeheimer Dis and Assoc Dis. 1999;13:S106-S110.

Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME). 〈http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists/beme〉. Accessed 3/30/01.

Bland CJ, Meurer LN, Maldonado G. A systematic approach to conducting a non-statistical meta-analysis of research literature. Acad Med. 1995;70:642–53.

The Campbell Collaboration. 〈http://campbell.gse.upenn.edu〉. Accessed 3/30/01.

The Cochrane Collaboration. 〈http://www.cochrane.org〉. Accessed 3/30/01.

Cook DJ, Mulrow CD, Haynes RB. Systematic reviews: synthesis of best evidence for clinical decisions. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:376–80.

Cooper HM. Synthesizing Research. A Guide for Literature Reviews. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998.

Fraenkel JR, Wallen NE. Reviewing the literature. In: How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 4th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2000:70–101.

Gall JP, Gall MD, Borg WR. Applying Educational Research: A Practical Guide. 4th ed. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group, 1998: chapters 2, 3, 4.

Mulrow CD. Rationale for systematic reviews. BMJ. 1994;309:597–9.

(Although the following Web sites are learning resources for evidence-based research and practice, the information is applicable across research disciplines.)

Teaching/Learning Resources for Evidence Based Practice. Middlesex University, London, U.K. 〈http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/rctsh/ebp/main.htm〉. Accessed 3/30/01.

User's Guides to Evidence-Based Practice. Centres for Health Evidence, Canada. 〈http://www.cche.net/principles/content_all.asp〉. Accessed 3/30/01.

Relevance

Feinstein AR, Clinical Epidemiology: The Architecture of Clinical Research. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders, 1985.

Fraenkel JR, Wallen NE, How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2000.

Fincher RM (ed). Guidebook for Clerkship Directors. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges, 2000.

Research Design

Campbell DT, Stanley JC. Experimental and Quasi-experimental Designs for Research. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1981.

Cook TD, Campbell DT. Quasi-experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 1979.

Fletcher RH, Fletcher SW, Wagner EH. Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentials. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.

Hennekens CH, Buring JE. Epidemiology in Medicine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1987.

Kazdin AE (ed). Methodological Issues and Strategies in Clinical Research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1992.

Patton MQ. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990.

Instrumentation, Data Collection, and Quality Control

Fraenkel JR, Wallen NE. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Linn RL, Gronlund NE. Measurement and Assessment in Teaching. 8th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill, 2000.

Data Analysis and Statistics

Goetz JP, LeCompte MD. Ethnography and Qualitative Design in Educational Research. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1984.

Guba EG, Lincoln YS. Effective Evaluation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1981.

Fleiss JL. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981.

Pagano M, Gauvreau K. Principles of Biostatistics. Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press, 1993.

Patton MQ. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990.

Winer BJ. Statistical Principles in Experimental Design. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.

Reporting of Statistical Analyses

Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S., et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials: the CONSORT statement. JAMA. 1996; 276:637–9.

Cohen J. The earth is round (p < .05). Am Psychol. 1994;49:997–1003.

Dawson B, Trapp RG. Basic and Clinical Biostatistics. 3rd ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, 2001.

Hays, WL. Statistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1988.

Hopkins KD, Glass GV. Statistical Methods in Education & Psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1995.

Howell DC. Statistical Methods for Psychology. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1997.

Lang TA, Secic M. How to Report Statistics in Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: College of Physicians, 1997.

Meehl PE. Theoretical risks and tabular asterisks: Sir Karl, Sir Ronald, and the slow progress of soft psychology. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1978;46:806–34.

Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup DF. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses. Lancet. 1999;354:1896–900.

Norman GR, Striner DL. Biostatistics: The Bare Essentials. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby, 1994. [out of print]

Norusis MJ. SPSS 9.0 Guide to Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Rennie D. CONSORT revised—improving the reporting of randomized trials. JAMA. 2001;285:2006–7.

Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA. 2000;283:2008–12.

Presentation of Results

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1994.

Harris IB. Qualitative methods. In: Norman GR, van der Vleuten CPM, Newble D (eds). International Handbook for Research in Medical Education. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Kluwer, 2001.

Henry GT. Graphing Data: Techniques for Display and Analysis. Applied Social Research Methods Series Vol. 36. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995.

Regehr G. The experimental tradition. In: Norman GR, van der Vleuten CPM, Newble D (eds). International Handbook for Research in Medical Education. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Kluwer, 2001.

Tufte ER. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1983 (1998 printing).

Discussion and Conclusion: Interpretation

Day RA. How to Write and Publish A Scientific Paper. 5th ed. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1998:chapter 10.

Erlandson DA, Harris EL, Skipper BL, Allen SD. Doing Naturalistic Inquiry: A Guide to Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993.

Fraenkel JR, Wallen NE. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 4th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2000[Chapter 19, 20.

Gehlbach SH. Interpreting the Medical Literature. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992.

Guiding Principles for Mathematics and Science Education Research Methods: Report of a Workshop. Draft. Workshop on Education Research Methods, Division of Research, Evaluation and Communication, National Science Foundation, November 19–20, 1998, Ballston, VA. Symposium presented at the meeting of the American Education Research Association, April 21, 1999, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 〈http://bear.berkeley.edu/publications/report11.html〉. Accessed 5/1/01.

Huth EJ. Writing and Publishing in Medicine. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Lincoln YS, Guba EG. Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1985: chapter 11.

Miller WL, Crabtree BF. Clinical research. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994:340–53.

Patton MQ. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990.

Peshkin A. The goodness of qualitative research. Educ Res. 1993;22:23–9.

Riegelman RK, Hirsch RP. Studying a Study and Testing a Test: How to Read the Health Science Literature. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1996.

Teaching/Learning Resources for Evidence Based Practice. Middlesex University, London, U.K. 〈http://www.mdx.ac.uk/www/rctsh/ebp/main.htm〉. Accessed 5/1/01.

Users' Guides to Evidence-Based Practice. Centres for Health Evidence Canada. 〈http://www.cche.net/principles/content_all.asp〉. Accessed 5/1/01.

Title, Authors, and Abstract

American College of Physicians. Resources for Authors—Information for authors: Annals of Internal Medicine. Available from: MS Internet Explorer via the Internet. 〈http://www.acponline.org/journals/resource/info4aut.htm〉. Accessed 9/27/00.

Fye WB. Medical authorship: traditions, trends, and tribulations. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:317–25.

Godlee F. Definition of authorship may be changed. BMJ. 1996;312:1501–2.

Huth EJ. Writing and Publishing in Medicine. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Lundberg GD, Glass RM. What does authorship mean in a peer-reviewed medical journal? [editorial]. JAMA. 1996;276:75.

National Research Press. Part 4: Responsibilities. In: Publication Policy. 〈http://www.monographs.nrc.ca/cgi-bin/cisti/journals/rp/rp2_cust_e?pubpolicy〉. Accessed 6/5/01.

Pitkin RM, Branagan MA, Burmeister LF. Accuracy of data in abstracts of published research articles. JAMA. 1999;281:1110–1.

Rennie D, Yank V, Emanuel L. When authorship fails. A proposal to make contributors accountable. JAMA. 1997;278:579–85.

Shapiro DW, Wenger NS, Shapiro MF. The contributions of authors to multiauthored biomedical research papers. JAMA. 1994;271:438–42.

Slone RM. Coauthors' contributions to major papers published in the AJR: frequency of undeserved coauthorship. Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:571–9.

Smith J. Gift authorship: a poisoned chalice? Not usually, but it devalues the coinage of scientific publication. BMJ. 1994;309:1456–7.

Presentation and Documentation

Becker HS, Richards P. Writing for Social Scientists: How to Start and Finish Your Thesis, Book, or Article. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Browner WS. Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Day RA. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. 5th ed. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1998.

Day RA. Scientific English: a Guide for Scientists and Other Professionals. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1992.

Fishbein M. Medical Writing: the Technic and the Art. 4th ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1972.

Hall GM. How to Write a Paper. London, U.K.: BMJ Publishing Group, 1994.

Howard VA, Barton JH. Thinking on Paper: Refine, Express, and Actually Generate Ideas by Understanding the Processes of the Mind. New York: William Morrow, 1986.

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:36–47; 〈www.acponline.org/journals/annals/01janr97/unifreq〉 [updated May 1999].

Kirkman J. Good Style: Writing for Science and Technology. London, U.K.: E. & F.N. Spon, 1997.

Matkin RE, Riggar TF. Persist and Publish: Helpful Hints for Academic Writing and Publishing. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1991.

Morgan, P. An Insider's Guide for Medical Authors and Editors. Philadelphia, PA: ISI Press, 1986.

Sheen AP. Breathing Life into Medical Writing: A Handbook. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby, 1982 [out of print].

Tornquist EM. From Proposal to Publication: An Informal Guide to Writing about Nursing Research. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1986.

Tufte ER. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1990.

Tufte ER. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1983 [1998 printing].

Tufte ER. Visual Explanation. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1997.

Zeiger M. Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

Scientific Conduct

The Belmont Report (1976). 〈http://ddonline.gsm.com/demo/consult/belm_int.htm〉. Accessed 5/23/01.

Committee on Publication Ethics. The COPE Report 1998. 〈http://www.bmj.com/misc/cope/tex1.shtml〉. Accessed 5/9/01.

Committee on Publication Ethics. The COPE Report 2000. 〈http://www.bmjpg.com/publicationethics/cope/cope.htm〉. Accessed 5/9/01.

Council of Biology Editors. Ethics and Policy in Scientific Publication. Bethesda, MD: Council of Biology Editors, 1990.

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), International Guidelines for Ethical Review of Epidemiological Studies, Geneva, 1991. In: King NMP, Henderson GE, Stein J (eds). Beyond Regulations: Ethics in Human Subjects Research. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

The Hastings Center's Bibliography of Ethics, Biomedicine, and Professional Responsibility. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America in Association with the Hastings Center, 1984.

Henry RC, Wright DE. When are medical students considered subjects in program evaluation? Acad Med. 2001;76:871–5.

National Research Press. Part 4: Responsibilities. In: Publication Policy. 〈http://www.monographs.nrc.ca/cgi-bin/cisti/journals/rp/rp2_cust_e?pubpolicy〉. Accessed 6/5/01.

Roberts LW, Geppert C, Connor R, Nguyen K, Warner TD. An invitation for medical educators to focus on ethical and policy issues in research and scholarly practice. Acad Med. 2001;76:876–85.

Section Description

Review Criteria for Research Manuscripts

Joint Task Force of Academic Medicine and the GEA-RIME Committee

© 2001 Association of American Medical Colleges