Secondary Logo

Striving While Accepting

Exploring the Relationship Between Identity and Implicit Bias Recognition and Management

Sukhera, Javeed, MD, DABPN, FRCPC; Wodzinski, Michael; Teunissen, Pim W., MD, PhD; Lingard, Lorelei, PhD; Watling, Chris, MD, FRCPC, PhD

doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002382
Addressing Implicit Bias
Free

Purpose Implicit biases worsen outcomes for underserved and marginalized populations. Once health professionals are made aware of their implicit biases, a process ensues where they must reconcile this information with their personal and professional identities. The authors sought to explore how identity influences the process of implicit bias recognition and management.

Method Using constructivist grounded theory, the authors recruited 11 faculty and 10 resident participants working at an academic health science center in Canada. Interviews took place from June to October 2017. Participants took an online version of the mental illness implicit association test (IAT) which provides users with their degree of implicit dangerousness bias toward individuals with either physical or mental illness. Once they completed the IAT, participants were invited to draw a rich picture and interviewed about their picture and experience of taking their IAT. Data were analyzed using constant comparative procedures to develop focused codes and work toward the development of a deeper understanding of relationships among themes.

Results Once implicit biases were brought into conscious awareness, participants acknowledged vulnerabilities which provoked tension between their personal and professional identities. Participants suggested that they reconcile these tensions through a process described as striving for the ideal while accepting the actual. Relationships were central to the process; however, residents and faculty viewed the role of relationships differently.

Conclusions Striving for self-improvement while accepting individual shortcomings may provide a model for addressing implicit bias among health professionals, and relational dynamics appear to influence the process of recognizing and managing biases.

J. Sukhera is assistant professor in psychiatry and paediatrics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, and a PhD candidate in health professions education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

M. Wodzinski is an MD candidate, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

P.W. Teunissen is professor of workplace learning in healthcare, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, and gynecologist, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

L. Lingard is professor, Department of Medicine, and director, Centre for Education Research and Innovation, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

C. Watling is professor and associate dean for postgraduate medical education, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, and scientist, Centre for Education Research and Innovation, London, Ontario, Canada.

Funding/Support: This study was funded by grant support from Associated Medical Services.

Other disclosures: None reported.

Ethical approval: Approval was obtained from the Western University Research Ethics Board to conduct the study.

Correspondence should be addressed to Javeed Sukhera, LHSC VH, 800 Commissioners Rd. E., Suite B8-176, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5W9; telephone: (519) 685-8500 ext. 74968; e-mail: jsukhera@uwo.ca.

Bias is everywhere. Explicit biases include conscious attitudes or intentional discrimination toward certain groups.1 In contrast, implicit biases include attitudes or behaviors that exert a powerful influence over individuals outside their awareness.2–4 These implicit biases can perpetuate health disparities by widening inequities and decreasing trust between patients and health professionals. For example, implicit racial bias has been associated with inappropriate nonprescription of treatments for black compared with white patients.5,6 Implicit biases may also lead health professionals to appear dishonest to marginalized and underserved populations,1 leading to interactions that self-perpetuate cycles of distancing and disconnection.7,8

In response, educators are identifying potential interventions to mitigate the adverse impact of implicit bias on health care.9–16 Previous research describes how once biases are brought into awareness, there is an ensuing tension,14 which triggers a process that requires reflection and reconciliation.15–20 The first step in recognizing one’s biases requires seeking feedback through reflection; discussion; or tools such as the implicit association test (IAT), which is an online metric of response time that asks participants to associate words and assess automatic associations between certain concepts.18 The IAT measures response latency and has demonstrated several psychometric properties that support its use as a metric of implicit bias.18,21–27 Feedback information from the IAT may trigger long-lasting and powerful emotions such as shame or guilt,28,29 which require renegotiation each time they are encountered.30–33

In a recent study exploring health professional responses to feedback about implicit biases, we found that when physicians and nurses were provided with feedback about their implicit bias, this information evoked tensions related to their personal and professional identities. Participants struggled to reconcile feedback information about their biases, as they found it inconsistent with an aspirational version of themselves that seemed unrealistic to achieve.19 The implications of our initial findings suggest that antibias education takes place within a culture where health professionals hold themselves to unrealistic and perfectionistic standards,34,35 which contributes to psychological distress and self-doubt.36 If recognizing implicit bias has the potential to trigger self-doubt, and identity influences the reflection and reconciliation required to manage biases, we must seek deeper understanding of the process.

As individuals process and integrate information about their biases, there are several identity-related influences on how they evaluate their beliefs and behavior. They may appraise themselves according to their values and personal morals, or they may compare being biased to norms within their professional culture.20 Hernandez and colleagues15 found that medical students drew on personal standards more than professional norms when critically reflecting about their implicit biases. Personal and professional standards may also relate to how an individual views their identity according to themselves, their relationships with others, or their social group.28 For any health professional, learning that they hold implicit biases is unlikely to align with their ideal self-representation.

Without improving our knowledge about how identity influences implicit bias, we cannot leverage the full potential of implicit bias recognition and management curricula to reduce disparities and improve equity. To explore the relationship between identity and implicit bias management, we chose to explore implicit dangerousness biases toward individuals with physical or mental illness among psychiatry residents and faculty. Many mental health professionals view destigmatization as part of their role and therefore hold explicitly positive biases toward their patients, which do not always align with their implicit biases.37–39 This discrepancy between explicit attitudes and implicit biases about dangerousness may create tensions within an individual that must be processed and negotiated whenever they arise.

Negative attitudes toward patients with mental illness comprise a particularly pervasive and problematic set of implicit biases encountered in the health care system; these biases have been shown to result in mental health patients being overdiagnosed, undertreated, and more strongly associated with dangerousness compared with patients with physical illnesses.40–47 The stigma experienced by mental health patients, including feelings of stigmatization by mental health professionals, is a barrier to seeking and receiving sufficient medical care; thus, attempting to elucidate and address implicit biases held by mental health professionals is one potential route toward destigmatization and improvement of patient outcomes. The purpose of our study was to explore how learners and faculty reconcile identity tensions evoked during the process of implicit bias recognition and management. By exploring dangerousness bias within psychiatry, we hoped to elicit insights into how identity-related tensions are reconciled for other health professionals.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Method

In this study, we defined implicit bias as associations, attitudes, or beliefs that exist and enact their influence outside of an individual’s conscious awareness.

We electronically shared recruitment notices among mental health professionals working within an academic health sciences center in Ontario, Canada. We sought roughly equal participation between resident learners and teachers, and 21 individuals (9 male and 12 female) responded with an interest in participation. We completed semistructured interviews with 11 practicing psychiatrists involved in clinical education and 10 psychiatry residents. Interviews took place from June to October 2017. Approval was obtained from the Western University Research Ethics Board to conduct the study.

Our semistructured interviews lasted 30 to 90 minutes and consisted of reviewing the letter of information and consent followed by completion of the online version of the mental illness IAT. Once participants completed the IAT, they received a result that indicated whether they held strong, moderate, mild, or no dangerousness bias. During the initial interviews, participants were asked open-ended questions about the experience of taking the IAT and were asked to draw a rich picture which we discussed as part of their interview. A rich picture is a visual depiction of processes and human activity developed in systems engineering.48 Rich pictures have been used previously in health professional research to better understand conceptualizations of complex or challenging situations.49,50 We chose a visual method to foster deeper exploration of what we believed was an emotionally challenging situation. In particular, we hoped that a rich picture might address difficulties and limitations with a qualitative interview related to making implicit assumptions explicit.49 An example of a rich picture by one of our participants is provided as Figure 1. All our participants except one drew rich pictures. We asked participants to describe their picture and probed for how their picture related to questions in our discussion guide, which we adapted from previous research.19 Interviews were audio recorded, deidentified, and transcribed verbatim before analysis. The final version of our discussion guide is included as Appendix 1.

Figure 1

Figure 1

Team member composition included the principal investigator (J.S.), a child and adolescent psychiatrist, faculty member, and PhD candidate in health professions education; as well as research staff (M.W.) and three experts in health professions education (C.W., L.L., and P.T.) who do not work in mental health.

We used constructivist grounded theory to conduct our study as we worked on existing research to build theory toward a social process that is not well explained by an established theoretical construct.51–53 Constructivism assumes that individuals construct their understanding and knowledge of the world through a cycle of experience, reflection, and action.54 Once interviews were recorded and transcribed, coding and inductive analysis were conducted by a team consisting of J.S. and M.W. J.S. and M.W. met regularly, revising the discussion guide and ensuring that analysis was consistent with an effort to theoretically sample resident learners and faculty. Partway through the analysis, we found that several participants struggled with visual representations, so we chose to add visual prompts (Figure 2) to encourage reflection. Because of the limited number within our recruitment pool, we included full-time and part-time faculty and junior and senior resident learners. The first seven transcripts were transcribed and coded line-by-line by J.S. and M.W. Subsequent transcripts were coded line-by-line by J.S., who used constant comparative analysis and shifted toward focused consolidation of codes and analysis of relationship among themes. At regular intervals, analysis was shared and discussed with the team who worked toward the development of an explanatory theory and synthesized overall findings. Any discrepancies were addressed through collaborative debate. We continued to collect data and revise our discussion guide until the team felt there was enough data for a robust conceptual understanding of the process under study.55–57 Synthesis of results was shared in writing with all participants through individual e-mails. Those who reviewed the results described general agreement.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

Out of our 21 participants, 18 demonstrated IAT results that indicated implicit dangerousness bias toward either mental or physical illness, while 3 showed no difference in their associations between dangerousness and physical or mental illness. The act of completing the IAT and receiving their result provoked reflection about bias in all participants, including those that demonstrated no bias in their result. There were no significant differences between groups.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Acknowledging identity tensions

Once they were provided feedback about their implicit biases, most of our participants acknowledged categorizing and compartmentalizing their identities as part of their experiences. The demands of working with patients with mental illness appeared to influence the pressure they place on themselves to strive for an ideal that was impossible to achieve. When asked how they reconcile bias, one resident described how they have compartmentalized personal and professional identities separated by a “filter” that they must constantly recalibrate to recognize and manage biases (R04). Another resident drew a “mountain” to depict the divide between their personal and professional identities (R07). Several participants also described weather metaphors using “clouds” to describe their actual self or with “sunshine” related to their ideal self (F02, R05, F06). Overall, participants contrasted an idealized professional identity that was calm, confident, and unbiased with an actual identity that was vulnerable and a product of their personal experiences.

So the idealized self will never have any bias. The idealized self will always be able to look at a situation and see it for its complexity and its various components. But the actual self, by virtue of the kind of society that we live in and our own personal environment or the conditions under which we grew up, we will always have these uncomfortable biases that inform our initial reaction to people. So the actual self I think will always have initial biases that we have to overcome. (R03)

The aspirational professional self was viewed as an ideal worth striving for. Some faculty described that they have developed a professional identity which contributes to “pressure” to not be biased (F03; F10). A faculty participant shared, “I feel like it’s part of my job to not be judgmental and that’s something I want at work … it’s an ideal, you know, at home or outside of work too” (F07), while another stated:

Yeah. I think there’s a lot of pressure to, for a professional to be not biased and to treat all patients fairly and not give preference to some over others. And I do find myself sometimes, you know, having preference for seeing certain types of patients just because of how unpleasant the others are. And so ideally I’d live in a world where I would have equal feelings of wanting to help all my patients equally but the reality is that, you know, I do find myself caring for some patients more than others. (F03)

A resident described the professional identity as being a sort of superordinate identity that “supersedes” the development of their authentic self during residency training (R01). The resident went on to say: “I guess we all have bias but professionals do not have bias. Whatever biases I do have, I either want to kind of reduce or at the very least, be aware of” (R01). Both resident and faculty participants acknowledged that there was a process or struggle associated with striving toward their idealized self.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Striving while accepting

When asked to reflect on how implicit bias could be recognized and managed, participants described two salient but distinct processes. One was a constant striving for self-improvement that was intrinsic to most participants’ identity. The other was a gradual acceptance of their flaws and humanity. Most participants described that through reflection and dialogue, an individual could strive for an idealized self while accepting the actual. A resident described accepting imperfections by saying:

It’s just the reality that no human is ever perfect … just because someone has bad qualities doesn’t make them all bad and that good qualities can still exist and it doesn’t destroy the good. (R02)

Once their implicit biases were revealed through the IAT, participants described reflecting on this information. Several participants described the “constant questioning” of themselves (F03) suggesting an ongoing process of reflection and action that was central to how they reconciled tensions related to implicit bias (F09). A resident described this process as checking themselves “on a daily basis” (R10), while a faculty participant described the process as “a journey” that required “being constantly vigilant” (F06). One resident described the process as working toward “self-betterment” (R03), while a faculty participant described “self-compassion” (F05).

In addition to striving for betterment, most participants described a gradual acceptance of their own biases. One resident described working to be “more aware” of their biases while accepting that they would not “dissipate” (R01), while another resident stated:

I’ve come to terms with it … so working towards this means checking your biases, realizing when you might have let a bias come in between an interaction or a decision. I think it’s something you strive for. But I’m not going to wake up tomorrow and say, “hey, nobody has biases,” right? We all have them … so I think it’s something you strive for, accepting that it’s not necessarily going to be achieved. (R05)

There was variation in participants’ description of how they balanced striving with accepting. Some emphasized the need to self-improve, some emphasized acceptance, and one suggested that they had already reached what others strive for. One participant described that they had close to “full insight” and stated, “I pretty much know who I am, and with all the biases and everything, I am aware of this” (F10). Although this individual felt they had come close to reaching what others strive for, they continued to emphasize the need to keep striving. Another faculty participant offered an alternative perspective, stating that they reconcile tensions by

… growing myself, developing myself and understanding my own self better and talking with colleagues and being part of a community that kind of is working together on things I think that that helps me to get over to this place rather than just being isolated and on my own. (F11)

Back to Top | Article Outline

The role of relationships

Most participants reconciled identity tensions through relationships—emphasizing that implicit bias cannot be managed alone. Several faculty described how they valued sharing with others to reconcile their tensions. One faculty participant stated:

So I think I need to recognize that I’m not the only person … who is in need of help with this endeavor. There are many other people who share the same sort of drive that I have so I’m not alone in this. I think as more and more people join forces we’ll be able to achieve that idealized destination. (F04)

Faculty and residents differed in their description of how reconciliation is achieved through the relationships between teachers and learners. Most faculty participants described themselves as “role models” (F02, F03, F05, F06, F08, F10, F11), while most residents emphasized the need for guidance from faculty mentors. For example, when describing how they reconcile biases by “constantly introspecting and meditating,” a faculty participant stated,

So my role now for the rest of my life that I’m going to be working on professionally is to share the fact that our potential is huge and if I can get to be a role model for my residents, medical students and clinical professionals working with me to realize that they have a much bigger potential than they think they have, then I think I would have done a good job. (F06).

While most residents mentioned the potential of faculty mentors in helping them to recognize and manage implicit biases, there were variable responses on whether faculty could support these efforts. For residents, the potential support from their relationship with their teachers was colored with tension when mentors were not available. Residents also noted that mentors could only bring clarity and reassurance within the context of safety. One resident stated that variation in faculty mentors led to a constant sense of “unpredictability” (R01), while another mentioned that there were only “few” faculty preceptors that encouraged reflecting on biases and questioned whether faculty received enough “formalized training” on biases which motivated the resident to “seek external advice on this process” (R04). The lack of available guidance was clearly identified by resident participants as a barrier to addressing implicit biases that are incongruent with the health professional they aspired to be. Although faculty viewed themselves as role models, residents also suggested that there were issues limiting the availability and reflective capacity of some faculty to effectively role model how to address implicit biases. Another resident accepted the “humanity” of their teachers, emphasizing the importance of “sympathizing” with each other (R02). One resident went on to state:

I think it’s invaluable to hear the mentor’s own experiences as they were going through … if they struggled with something similarly … because they have more expertise and more time that they’ve spent working with people and we’re just novices. So I think that is an important piece. And it also, like I guess, creates a space where if they … if you’re willing … you’re opening up.… (R10)

Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

We learned from our participants that implicit bias recognition and management is fraught with challenges. Like previous research,17,19,58 our results suggested that recognizing one’s implicit biases triggers compartmentalization between the idealized professional identity and the actual personal identity. Successfully managing implicit biases requires reconciliation of these identities through safe and supportive relationships between teachers and learners, and the concept of “striving while accepting” may hold promise for faculty and learners engaging in the process.

Back to Top | Article Outline

How psychiatrists describe striving for the ideal

As part of their training, many psychiatrists undergo psychotherapy supervision where a framework is provided to question their assumptions and focus on unconscious aspects of their interactions with parents. Therefore, the identity of psychiatrists is likely to shape how our participants described their responses to feedback about implicit biases and influence how they reconcile these biases. Our participants described how their unique professional identity increased their self-imposed pressure to manage biases related to dangerousness involving their patients. They also shared how they interpreted striving for the ideal as a process of continuous reflection and improvement.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Striving while accepting is challenging within health professions education

Our finding that participants described a constant process of reflection and self-improvement can be interpreted in the context of previous literature on professional identity formation. The health professional learner is gradually socialized through their experiences,24,25,59 the influence of role models,60,61 and the formal and informal elements of their curriculum.62 When health professionals face experiences that suggest they are not living up to expectations, they may face feelings of inadequacy63–65 and imposter syndrome.36,66 Constantly striving to manage one’s implicit biases within a culture that rewards and incentivizes high achievement and perfectionism66,67 has the potential to produce psychological distress for learners. Since striving on its own may have negative consequences, what do we know about accepting?

Facilitated acceptance is currently described either in the context of the “struggling” learner or in the feedback literature.68–70 Teal and colleagues14 suggest that cognitive strategies are required to facilitate a developmental trajectory from denial of implicit bias to gradual acceptance. Our study extends previous research to emphasize the importance of fostering acceptance throughout the continuum of health professions education. While our previous research highlighted how feedback about implicit bias triggers tensions related to health professional identity, our findings build on previous theory to suggest that cognitive strategies that facilitate balance between seemingly opposite processes are integral to recognizing and managing implicit biases. We also learned that this process can be facilitated through relationships.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Reconciling through relationships is different for faculty and learners

We found that recognizing and managing implicit biases requires looking outside oneself toward relationships with others. Several authors have proposed models for facilitated reflection of negative or challenging feedback.71,72 For our participants, there was dissonance between how teachers and learners reconciled their implicit biases. While both groups brought up the importance of reconciling through relationships, they viewed role modeling differently. Residents desperately wanted guidance on bias management and saw potential in their faculty mentors to provide it, but this potential is too often unrealized. While faculty may identify their own struggles and see themselves as role models, they are not recognizing and managing their biases convincingly enough for many of their learners. If the potential for honest conversations between resident and faculty is not being actualized, we must investigate the role of relationships and implicit bias further. A deeper investigation into the relational dynamics of emotionally challenging topics such as implicit bias is necessary to advance efforts toward equity.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Implications

Leveraging an individual’s desire to strive for an idealized professional self may facilitate practice changes related to implicit bias recognition if balanced through facilitated reflection on accepting one’s shortcomings. These findings are useful for individuals and organizations looking for evidence-informed approaches to integrate implicit bias recognition and management.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Limitations

Our deliberate choice to sample psychiatrists from a single institution and explore implicit biases toward mental illness flavors the findings of this research. Future work could explore our findings among community psychiatrists who do not work in an academic setting and are not actively involved in working with resident or undergraduate learners. The IAT has its own limitations as a measure and has been critiqued in the literature.73–76 We therefore emphasized the use of the IAT as a prompt to trigger reflection.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Conclusions

Discussions about implicit bias within health professional education trigger identity tensions, and striving for self-improvement while accepting individual shortcomings may provide a model for successfully reconciling such tensions and managing implicit biases. Enacting the concept of striving while accepting may require honest and authentic relationships between teachers and learners.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Acknowledgments:

The authors would like to acknowledge the participants of this research and Dr. Sayra Cristancho.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Dovidio JF, Fiske ST. Under the radar: How unexamined biases in decision-making processes in clinical interactions can contribute to health care disparities. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:945–952.
2. Institute of Medicine. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. 2003.Washington, DC: Federal Register;
3. Ross HJ. Everyday Bias: Identifying and Navigating Unconscious Judgments in Our Daily Lives. [Place of publication not identified]: 2014.Rowman & Littlefield;
4. Staats C, Capatosto K, Wright RA, Contractor D. State of the Science: Implicit Bias Review 2015. 2015. Columbus, OH: Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity; http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/2015-kirwan-implicit-bias.pdf. Accessed March 1, 2017.
5. Green AR, Carney DR, Pallin DJ, et al. Implicit bias among physicians and its prediction of thrombolysis decisions for black and white patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:1231–1238.
6. Sabin JA, Greenwald AG. The influence of implicit bias on treatment recommendations for 4 common pediatric conditions: Pain, urinary tract infection, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and asthma. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:988–995.
7. Devine PG, Plant EA, Amodio DM, Harmon-Jones E, Vance SL. The regulation of explicit and implicit race bias: The role of motivations to respond without prejudice. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002;82:835–848.
8. Dovidio JF, Penner LA, Albrecht TL, Norton WE, Gaertner SL, Shelton JN. Disparities and distrust: The implications of psychological processes for understanding racial disparities in health and health care. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67:478–486.
9. Burgess D, van Ryn M, Dovidio J, Saha S. Reducing racial bias among health care providers: Lessons from social-cognitive psychology. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:882–887.
10. Burgess DJ, Beach MC, Saha S. Mindfulness practice: A promising approach to reducing the effects of clinician implicit bias on patients. Patient Educ Couns. 2017;100:372–376.
11. Burgess DJ, Fu SS, van Ryn M. Why do providers contribute to disparities and what can be done about it? J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:1154–1159.
12. Stone J, Moskowitz GB. Non-conscious bias in medical decision making: What can be done to reduce it? Med Educ. 2011;45:768–776.
13. Sukhera J, Watling C. A framework for integrating implicit bias recognition into health professions education. Acad Med. 2018;93:35–40.
14. Teal CR, Gill AC, Green AR, Crandall S. Helping medical learners recognise and manage unconscious bias toward certain patient groups. Med Educ. 2012;46:80–88.
15. Hernandez RA, Haidet P, Gill AC, Teal CR. Fostering students’ reflection about bias in healthcare: Cognitive dissonance and the role of personal and normative standards. Med Teach. 2013;35:e1082–e1089.
16. Teal CR, Shada RE, Gill AC, et al. When best intentions aren’t enough: Helping medical students develop strategies for managing bias about patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(suppl 2):S115–S118.
17. van Ryn M, Hardeman R, Phelan SM, et al. Medical school experiences associated with change in implicit racial bias among 3547 students: A medical student CHANGES study report. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30:1748–1756.
18. Greenwald AG, McGhee DE, Schwartz JL. Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998;74:1464–1480.
19. Sukhera J, Milne A, Teunissen PW, Lingard L, Watling C. The actual versus idealized self: Exploring responses to feedback about implicit bias in health professionals. Acad Med. 2018;93:623–629.
20. Stone J, Cooper J. A self-standards model of cognitive dissonance. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2001;37:228–243.
21. Bosson JK, Swann WB Jr, Pennebaker JW. Stalking the perfect measure of implicit self-esteem: The blind men and the elephant revisited? J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;79:631–643.
22. Dasgupta N, McGhee DE, Greenwald AG, Banaji MR. Automatic preference for white Americans: Eliminating the familiarity explanation. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2000;36:316–328.
23. Greenwald AG, Farnham SD. Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;79:1022–1038.
24. Greenwald AG, Nosek BA. Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3. Z Exp Psychol. 2001;48:85–93.
25. Greenwald AG, Nosek BA, Banaji MR. Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;85:197–216.
26. Nosek BA, Greenwald AG, Banaji MR. Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: II. Method variables and construct validity. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2005;31:166–180.
27. Steffens MC. Is the implicit association test immune to faking? Exp Psychol. 2004;51:165–179.
28. Tracy J, Robins R. Putting the self into self-conscious emotions: A theoretical model. Psychol Inq. 2004;15:103–125.
29. Bynum WE 4th, Artino AR Jr.. Who am I, and who do I strive to be? Applying a theory of self-conscious emotions to medical education. Acad Med. 2018;93:874–880.
30. Bynum WE 4th, Goodie JL. Shame, guilt, and the medical learner: Ignored connections and why we should care. Med Educ. 2014;48(11):1045–1054.
31. Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Boudreau JD, Snell L, Steinert Y. Reframing medical education to support professional identity formation. Acad Med. 2014;89:1446–1451.
32. Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Boudreau JD, Snell L, Steinert Y. A schematic representation of the professional identity formation and socialization of medical students and residents: A guide for medical educators. Acad Med. 2015;90:718–725.
33. Mann K, van der Vleuten C, Eva K, et al. Tensions in informed self-assessment: How the desire for feedback and reticence to collect and use it can conflict. Acad Med. 2011;86:1120–1127.
34. Cope A, Bezemer J, Mavroveli S, Kneebone R. What attitudes and values are incorporated into self as part of professional identity construction when becoming a surgeon? Acad Med. 2017;92:544–549.
35. Henning K, Ey S, Shaw D. Perfectionism, the imposter phenomenon and psychological adjustment in medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy students. Med Educ. 1998;32:456–464.
36. LaDonna KA, Ginsburg S, Watling C. “Rising to the level of your incompetence”: What physicians’ self-assessment of their performance reveals about the impact of the imposter syndrome in medicine. Acad Med. 2018;93:763–768.
37. Ashburn-Nardo L. The importance of implicit and explicit measures for understanding social stigma. J Soc Issues. 2010;66(3):508–520.
38. Gershan D. Explicit and Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness in Mental Healthcare Settings. 2013.Norfolk, VA: College of William & Mary;
39. Sirota S. Implicit Stigma Against People With Mental Illness: Exploring Explicit and Implicit Beliefs of Clinical Psychology Graduate Students [dissertation]. The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; 2014.
40. Clement S, Schauman O, Graham T, et al. What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychol Med. 2015;45:11–27.
41. Corrigan P, Gelb B. Three programs that use mass approaches to challenge the stigma of mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2006;57:393–398.
42. Corrigan P, Matthews A. Stigma and disclosure: Implications for coming out of the closet. J Ment Health. 2003;12(3):235–248.
43. Corrigan PW. ed. On the Stigma of Mental Illness: Practical Strategies for Research and Social Change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2005.
44. Corrigan PW. Research and the elimination of the stigma of mental illness. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;201:7–8.
45. Corrigan PW, Watson AC. Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness. World Psychiatry. 2002;1:16–20.
46. Sukhera J, Miller K, Milne A, et al. Labelling of mental illness in a paediatric emergency department and its implications for stigma reduction education. Perspect Med Educ. 2017;6:165–172.
47. Yap MB, Reavley N, Mackinnon AJ, Jorm AF. Psychiatric labels and other influences on young people’s stigmatizing attitudes: Findings from an Australian national survey. J Affect Disord. 2013;148:299–309.
48. Boardman J, Sauser B. Systems Thinking: Coping With 21st Century Problems. 2008.Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press;
49. Cristancho S. Eye opener: Exploring complexity using rich pictures. Perspect Med Educ. 2015;4:138–141.
50. Cristancho S, Bidinosti S, Lingard L, Novick R, Ott M, Forbes T. Seeing in different ways: Introducing “rich pictures” in the study of expert judgment. Qual Health Res. 2015;25:713–725.
51. Charmaz K. Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Research. 2006.London, UK: Sage Publications Ltd.;
52. Charmaz K. Developing Grounded Theory: The Second Generation. 2008.Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press;
53. Charmaz K. Constructing Grounded Theory. 2014.2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE;
54. Watling CJ, Lingard L. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE guide no. 70. Med Teach. 2012;34:850–861.
55. Hennink MM, Kaiser BN, Marconi VC. Code saturation versus meaning saturation: How many interviews are enough? Qual Health Res. 2017;27:591–608.
56. Morse JM. The Significance of Saturation. 1995.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications;
57. O’Reilly M, Parker N. “Unsatisfactory saturation”: A critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research. Qual Res. 2013;13(2):190–197.
58. Schlachter S, Rolf S. Using the IAT: How do individuals respond to their results? Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2017;20(1):77–92.
59. Wald HS, Anthony D, Hutchinson TA, Liben S, Smilovitch M, Donato AA. Professional identity formation in medical education for humanistic, resilient physicians: Pedagogic strategies for bridging theory to practice. Acad Med. 2015;90:753–760.
60. Hafferty FW. Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Steinert Y. Professionalism and the socialization of medical students. In: Teaching Medical Professionalism. 2009.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press;
61. Monrouxe LV. Identity, identification and medical education: Why should we care? Med Educ. 2010;44:40–49.
62. Hafferty FW. Beyond curriculum reform: Confronting medicine’s hidden curriculum. Acad Med. 1998;73:403–407.
63. Cohen MJ, Kay A, Youakim JM, Balaicuis JM, Balacius JM. Identity transformation in medical students. Am J Psychoanal. 2009;69:43–52.
64. McCranie EW, Brandsma JM. Personality antecedents of burnout among middle-aged physicians. Behav Med. 1988;14:30–36.
65. Cole TR, Carlin N. The suffering of physicians. Lancet. 2009;374:1414–1415.
66. Clance P, Imes S. The imposter phenomenon in high achieving women: Dynamics and therapeutic intervention. Psychotherapy (Chic). 1978;15:241–247.
67. Thompson T, Foreman P, Martin F. Imposter fears and perfectionistic concern over mistakes. Pers Individ Dif. 2000;29:629–647.
68. Bynum WE 4th.. Filling the feedback gap: The unrecognised roles of shame and guilt in the feedback cycle. Med Educ. 2015;49:644–647.
69. Sargeant J, McNaughton E, Mercer S, Murphy D, Sullivan P, Bruce DA. Providing feedback: Exploring a model (emotion, content, outcomes) for facilitating multisource feedback. Med Teach. 2011;33:744–749.
70. Sargeant JM, Mann KV, van der Vleuten CP, Metsemakers JF. Reflection: A link between receiving and using assessment feedback. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2009;14:399–410.
71. Telio S, Ajjawi R, Regehr G. The “educational alliance” as a framework for reconceptualizing feedback in medical education. Acad Med. 2015;90:609–614.
72. Sargeant J, Lockyer J, Mann K, et al. Facilitated reflective performance feedback: Developing an evidence- and theory-based model that builds relationship, explores reactions and content, and coaches for performance change (R2C2). Acad Med. 2015;90:1698–1706.
73. Andreychik MR, Gill MJ. Do negative implicit associations indicate negative attitudes? Social explanations moderate whether ostensible “negative” associations are prejudice-based or empathy-based. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2012;48(5):1082–1093.
74. Banaji MR, Nosek BA, Greenwald AG. No place for nostalgia in science: A response to Arkes and Tetlock. Psychol Inq. 2004;15(4):279–289.
75. Blanton H, Jaccard J, Christie C, Gonzales PM. Plausible assumptions, questionable assumptions and post hoc rationalizations: Will the real IAT, please stand up? J Exp Soc Psychol. 2007;43(3):399–409.
76. Singal J. Psychology’s favorite tool for measuring racism isn’t up to the job. NY Mag. January 11, 2017. https://www.thecut.com/2017/01/psychologys-racism-measuring-tool-isnt-up-to-the-job.html. Accessed April 1, 2018
Back to Top | Article Outline

Appendix 1 Discussion Guide

Prompt for drawing rich picture:

A rich picture in this study is a visual representation of your thoughts, feelings, and reflections about your role as person or professional and any associated tensions within these identities. The picture provides an opportunity to visually depict how you may or may not reconcile any such tensions.

We encourage you to reflect on the experience of the test by considering two tensions:

  1. “What do the results say about who I am in personal versus professional contexts?”
  2. “What do the results say about the tension between who I actually am versus the idealized version of a health professional I aspire to be?”
Back to Top | Article Outline

Prompt after discussing picture:

Reflect on role as teacher versus learner.

How do you reconcile these tensions?

How do you process and integrate this information (or other information) about your biases and stigma from here?

© 2018 by the Association of American Medical Colleges