The authors challenge the conventional wisdom guiding what participants in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) should be learning. Medical students and residents from the United States have been told to focus on standardized competencies and ethical principles, in addition to the biomedical knowledge, skills, and attitudes highlighted by working internationally. The authors suggest that although these training goals are important, they may divert learners from developing their professional identities in ways that contribute to the health of all persons, especially those who are economically poor and socially marginalized. The authors postulate that such a professional transformation will occur only if STEGH participants attend to 5 key learning goals: develop contextual inquisitiveness, grow in insightful understanding, nurture global humility, cultivate structural awareness, and critically engage in the pursuit of creating equitable and just societies. Further, the authors argue that only by attending to these goals will any genuine change in the root causes of inequities in health outcomes occur. The authors review these goals and encourage their use for professional and pedagogical purposes over the duration of any STEGH—before departure, while in host communities, and upon return home.