In 2015, the Association of American Medical Colleges implemented an interinstitutional pilot of 13 core entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for entering residency, activities that entering residents should be expected to perform with indirect supervision. The pilot included a concept group on faculty development; this group previously offered a shared mental model focused on the development of faculty who devote their efforts to clinical teaching and assessment for learning and entrustment decision making. In this article, the authors draw from the literature of competency-based education to propose what is needed in overall approaches to faculty development to prepare institutions for undergraduate EPA implementation.
Taking a systems-based view that defines the necessary tasks of EPA implementation, the authors move beyond the variably used term “faculty” and enumerate a comprehensive list of institutional stakeholders who can meaningfully support and/or engage in the relationships and organizational processes required for EPA learning and assessment. They consider each group’s responsibilities and development needs according to five domains delineated by Steinert: teaching improvement, leadership and management, research-building capacity, academic career building, and organizational change.
The authors argue that the EPA framework addresses barriers posed with the use of a competency-based framework. By facilitating the communication required for organizational change, enabling valid assessment with comprehensive yet feasible levels of faculty development, and incorporating all relevant data on student professional behavior into summative assessment decisions, EPAs may offer a clearer path toward the goal of competency-based education.
C.S. Lupi is associate dean for faculty and professor of obstetrics and gynecology, Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, Florida.
A.R. Ownby is assistant dean for faculty and educational development and associate professor of pediatrics, McGovern Medical School, a part of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas.
J.A. Jokela is acting regional dean, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.
W.B. Cutrer is assistant dean for undergraduate medical education and associate professor of pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.
A.K. Thompson-Busch is community assistant dean and assistant professor of pediatrics and human development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
M. Catallozzi is pediatric clerkship director and assistant professor of pediatrics and population and family health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.
J.M. Noble is assistant professor of neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.
J.M. Amiel is associate dean for curricular affairs and associate professor of psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency pilot institutions.
Other disclosures: None reported.
Ethical approval: Reported as not applicable.
Correspondence should be addressed to Carla S. Lupi, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th St., AHC2-662, Miami, FL 33199; telephone: (305) 348-0625; e-mail: email@example.com.