Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Kratom and General Anesthesia

A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Vermaire, Deborah J., MD; Skaer, Deborah, BS Pharm; Tippets, William, DO

doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000857
Case Reports

Kratom is a botanical substance derived from the Mitragyna speciosa plant, which grows naturally in Southeast Asia. Its active compounds include alkaloids with psychoactive and opioid properties. Low doses act as a stimulant, while higher doses cause analgesia and euphoria. As a drug of abuse, there are reports of seizure, acute psychosis, and death. Both the US Food and Drug Administration and the Drug Enforcement Agency warn against the use of kratom. Here is the first reported case of an anesthetic in a patient using kratom for chronic pain.

From the Shriners Hospital for Children—Spokane, Spokane, Washington.

Accepted for publication June 18, 2018.

Funding: None.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Address correspondence to Deborah J. Vermaire, MD, Shriners Hospital for Children—Spokane, Spokane, WA. Address e-mail to

© 2019 International Anesthesia Research Society
You currently do not have access to this article

To access this article:

Note: If your society membership provides full-access, you may need to login on your society website