Kastelijn, Elisabeth A.1; van Moorsel, Coline H.M.1,2; Ruven, Henk J.T.3; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.2; Grutters, Jan C.1,2,4
BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS SYNDROME AFTER LUNG TRANSPLANTATION
Lung transplantation is a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage pulmonary diseases. However, the survival rates after lung transplantation are the lowest among solid organ transplantations (1). The long-term survival is mainly limited by the development of chronic rejection, known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) (2, 3).
The initial step in the development of BOS is damage to the pulmonary epithelium, caused by several risk factors, such as acute rejection, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, cytomegalovirus infection, and gastroesophageal reflux (2–4). This injury is followed by an inflammatory response and up-regulation of cytokines and chemokines (2). The inflammatory cascade is believed to cause repetitive damage and subsequent remodeling of the bronchioli leading to fibrosis and obliteration of the airway lumen (3, 5).
However, these risk factors alone do not explain the interindividual variability seen in the development of BOS. There is growing evidence that genetic factors could play a role in the interindividual variation in susceptibility to complications after transplantation, to differences in time of onset of the clinical symptoms of BOS in particular, and to differences in the way a recipient responds to immunosuppressive therapy (6, 7). Various genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and cytokine genes have already been investigated as potential independent risk factors for the development of BOS (8–11). Cytokine gene polymorphisms have been found to alter the secretion or function of cytokines, which might influence the activation of the immune system (12–14). Moreover, variations in the innate immune response were found to be influenced by genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity genes (15).
Application of the genetic variability of lung transplant recipients in the management and treatment of these patients might be a promising approach for the future. Genetic risk profiling could help clinicians to better stratify the risk of developing BOS on an individual basis and to start with targeted immunosuppressive therapy accordingly.
In this article, we describe the results of a systematic review based on a literature search through Medline and Embase from 1948 until March 2011. The genetic variations that have been investigated in lung transplant recipients and that have shown to be associated with the susceptibility to develop BOS after lung transplantation are summarized.
SEARCH STRATEGY AND SELECTING CRITERIA
A search through Ovid Medline (1948 to March 2011) and Embase (1988 to March 2011) was performed for all medical literature published in English-language journals.
For Medline, the following search strategy was used: ([bronchiolitis obliterans.mp. or Bronchiolitis Obliterans/ OR allograft fibrosis.mp. OR chronic rejection.mp.] AND [exp Polymorphism, Genetic/ OR haplotype$.mp. or Haplotypes/ OR genetic predisposition.mp. or Genetic Predisposition to Disease/]) OR Bronchiolitis Obliterans/ge OR ([lung transplantation.mp. or Lung Transplantation/] AND [*Graft Rejection/ge]) OR (*lung transplantation/ AND Graft Rejection/ge). For Embase, the same keywords were used, but the search strategy was adapted to Embase-specific indexation.
In addition, we reviewed the reference lists from all relevant articles to identify additional studies. Studies that met the following criteria were included in the study: (1) lung transplant recipients were included; (2) the development of BOS or allograft fibrosis was reported as outcome; and (3) any genetic polymorphism was determined.
Numbers of controls and lung transplant recipients with and without BOS or allograft fibrosis and allele and genotype frequencies were extracted from the included articles and summarized in a consistent manner to aid comparison. If a study reported results in percentage instead of absolute data, absolute data were calculated when possible.
The effect of genetic variation in cytokine, innate immunity, and repair genes on the development of BOS was estimated by testing the significance of differences in distribution of alleles or genotypes between BOSpos and BOSneg patients. At first, differences between the allele frequencies were calculated with the Pearson's chi-square test together with the corresponding odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Second, when P less than 0.15 for the allelic distribution, we determined the risk associated with carriership or homozygosity of the risk allele with Pearson's chi-square, together with the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. To determine the additive effect of the risk allele, we performed the Armitage's trend test; however, this could only be performed for studies that supplied counts of the three different genotypes in both BOSpos and BOSneg patient groups. Computations were performed online at: http://faculty.vassar.edu/lowry/VassarStats.html and http://ihg2.helmholtz-muenchen.de/ihg/snps.html. P less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS OF LITERATURE SEARCH
Database searching identified 269 potential citations. After removing the duplicates and initial screening of titles and abstracts, 16 studies were assessed for possible inclusion in the review, and 13 studies met the inclusion criteria (Fig. 1). In these 13 articles, 40 different genetic polymorphisms in eight cytokine genes, seven innate immunity genes, and one repair gene were investigated in relation to BOS or allograft fibrosis.
In Table 1, the numbers of cases and controls in each study are reported. In Table 2, an overview is given of the investigated genetic polymorphisms in lung transplant recipients with the respective risk calculations for the development of BOS or allograft fibrosis.
CYTOKINE GENES AND BOS OR ALLOGRAFT FIBROSIS
A number of studies have investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), interferon gamma (IFNG), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1), interleukin (IL)6, and IL10, and the development of BOS or allograft fibrosis after lung transplantation (10, 11, 16, 17). These genetic polymorphisms were chosen on account of the proven inflammatory, profibrotic, or anti-inflammatory properties of their gene products.
In four independent studies, no association was detected between genetic polymorphisms in TNFA and IL10 and the development of BOS or allograft fibrosis (10, 11, 16, 17).
A significant association was detected between homozygosity for the major T allele of IFNG at position +874 A/T and the development and earlier onset of BOS (11). Two other studies did not confirm this association (10, 16), but a fourth study showed that allele 2 of the CA repeat in IFNG was most commonly observed in the group with allograft fibrosis compared with the group without allograft fibrosis (18), but this association was not replicated.
Homozygosity for the major allele of codon 25 of TGFB1 was associated with allograft fibrosis diagnosed by histology in two studies (19, 20). One of these studies showed that a second genetic polymorphism (cytosine deletion at position +72) was also associated with allograft fibrosis and that the G allele at position −800 was associated with lung transplant recipients who developed fibrosis compared with healthy controls, although the frequency was not significantly different between recipients with and without allograft fibrosis (20). Other studies, which used either the BOS criteria according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (10, 11) or the term chronic rejection (16, 17), did not confirm this association.
Homozygosity for allele 1 of the 86-bp repeat of the IL-1 receptor antagonist gene was associated with chronic rejection in a cohort of thoracic transplant recipients (17, 21), and an almost twofold increased risk for the major allele at position 8061 C/T in IL-1 receptor antagonist was found. These associations were not replicated in another independent cohort.
In IL6, carriership of the G allele of the IL6 gene (−174 G/C) was associated with the development and an earlier onset of BOS in two studies (10, 11) but could not be validated in three other cohorts (10, 16, 17).
INNATE IMMUNITY GENES AND BOS
Five studies have investigated the associations between genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and BOS, but none of the following positive associations have been replicated in another independent cohort.
Lung transplant recipients carrying the minor allele for either one of the functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Asp299Gly (rs4986790) or Thr399Ile (rs4986791), showed a trend toward reduced onset of BOS grade 2 or 3 (9). Other genetic polymorphisms in TLR2 (rs1898830), TLR4 (rs1927911), and TLR9 (rs352162 and rs187084) were associated with an increased risk to develop BOS (22). In this study, the BOSpos patients had significantly more risk alleles in TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 together compared with the BOSneg patients and controls (22).
Homozygotes for the minor allele (T) of CD14 at position −159 C/T had a higher overall incidence and an earlier onset of BOS than patients with other genotypes (8).
Patients who received a graft from a donor homozygous for the Y allele of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene had a worse BOS-free survival compared with patients who received a graft from a donor with a X/X or X/Y genotype. Furthermore, a negative effect of the donor HYPA haplotype on the development of BOS was observed. However, these negative effects disappeared after introduction of a new immunosuppressive regimen because of a dramatic increase in the 1-year BOS-free survival. Recipient MBL genotype was not associated with transplant outcome (23).
Furthermore, the presence of the inhibitory haplotype A of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and the absence of KIR2DS5 were reported to be associated with BOS (24).
REPAIR GENE AND BOS
Only one study investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms in repair genes and BOS. Lung transplant recipients homozygous for the major alleles of rs17098318, rs11569919, and rs12285347 and for the minor allele of rs10502001 of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)7 gene had an increased risk to develop BOS. Haplotypes constructed with three or four of these risk alleles correlated with lower serum levels of MMP-7 and were more often present in the BOSpos patients (25).
COMMENTS ON THE PUBLISHED GENETIC ASSOCIATIONS
The results of this review show that significant associations have been reported between functional genetic polymorphisms in several cytokine genes and the development of BOS or allograft fibrosis after lung transplantation. In addition, significant associations in innate immunity genes and a repair gene were found in relation to BOS.
In the majority of the cytokine gene association studies, the same subset of cytokine genes was analyzed. The association between the genetic polymorphism in the IL6 gene and BOS was reported by Lu et al. and Snyder et al. (10, 11). Snyder et al. (10) were unable to confirm the association of IL6 and IFNG with BOS. However, they could conclude that SNPs in the IL6 and IFNG genes were associated with an earlier onset of BOS and suggested that the conflicting results might be attributed to small sample size and differences in ethnic backgrounds, immunosuppressive regimens, and follow-up time (10). The existence of an association between IFNG and BOS is supported by genetic linkage of the T allele at position +874 and allele 2 of the CA repeat (26).
IL10 and TNFA have never been associated with BOS or allograft fibrosis, and therefore, in our opinion these two cytokines can be excluded from future gene association studies.
The associations of both IL1 and TGFB1 with BOS or allograft fibrosis need to be interpreted with caution. The study that reported the association between IL1 and chronic rejection used a cohort of different types of thoracic transplant recipients of which the number of lung transplant recipients was too small to analyze separately (17). In the studies of El-Gamel et al. (19) and Awad et al. (20), the cohorts of lung transplant recipients were largely overlapping. Therefore, the association between codon 25 in the TGFB1 gene and allograft fibrosis is not positively replicated in another independent cohort. In addition, these studies found an association between a genetic polymorphism in the TGFB1 gene and allograft fibrosis. Allograft fibrosis and BOS may not be equivalent entities as the presence of fibrotic changes on transbronchial biopsies does not necessarily identify patients with changes of obliterative bronchiolitis. The difference between allograft fibrosis and BOS is recently illustrated by a new concept describing BOS no longer as the only form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Another form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, called restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS), exhibits restrictive functional changes with fibrotic processes in peripheral lung tissue than the classical finding of small airway obliteration seen in BOS (27).
Furthermore, in the past years, two different phenotypes of BOS are distinguished based on the response to the treatment with azithromycin (28, 29). The first phenotype is called neutrophilic reversible allograft dysfunction and showed increased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of neutrophils and different proteins, inflammatory active lesions on histology, and is responding to azithromycin. The second phenotype includes the fibroproliferative BOS that showed no neutrophils and another protein pattern in bronchoalveolar lavage, pure fibrosis on histology, and no response to azithromycin (28, 30). RAS and the two different phenotypes of BOS were described recently and have therefore not been included in the definitions of BOS or allograft fibrosis in the gene association studies in this review. Nevertheless, part of the patients who were diagnosed with BOS or allograft fibrosis in these studies might meet the criteria of these new subtypes, which might influence the present conclusions. For example, as azithromycin seems to reduce inflammation by inhibiting components of the innate immune response (29, 31), treatment of lung transplant recipients with azithromycin might influence the associations found between innate immunity genes and BOS. Before RAS and neutrophilic reversible allograft dysfunction can be used in future association studies, they need to be evaluated and confirmed.
Early after lung transplantation, the transplanted lungs exist of donor cells. Nevertheless, chimerism between donor and recipient cells is reported to occur in the lungs of lung transplant recipients (32). Epithelial structures displaying signs of chronic injury, as present in the development of BOS, showed a higher degree of chimerism (32). From this point of view, Palmer et al. (9) concluded that TLR4 recipient genotype could influence the epithelial response to innate pathogens. Besides chimerism, shown to be present in transplanted lung, the genetic profile of the donor will also be involved in the development of BOS. Munster et al. (23) showed that the genetic profile of the donor, and not of the recipient, is associated with the development of BOS.
FUNCTIONALITY OF THE GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS
The functionality of the genetic polymorphisms in the cytokine genes has been previously investigated. The T allele (+874 A/T) and the CA repeat allele 2 of IFNG are in linkage disequilibrium with each other and are associated with an increased production of IFN-γ (33). Furthermore, the −174 G allele of IL6 is also associated with an increased production of its gene product (14).
Homozygosity for the major allele of codon 25 of the TGFB1 gene, which is in linkage disequilibrium with a cytosine deletion at position +72, is also associated with a higher TGF-β1 production than the other genotypes (20).
The mechanisms by which these genetic variations contribute to the development of BOS are currently not exactly known. It is, however, likely that they influence the immune response toward inflammation and fibrosis. IL-6 and IFN-γ are involved in acute inflammatory responses in general, but both are also known for their profibrotic properties (34, 35). TGF-β plays a pivotal role in the development of fibrosis (35). This suggests that genetically determined variability in cytokine production capacity could play a role in interindividual differences in the intensity of the inflammatory process and in the subsequent fibrogenesis leading to BOS.
Significant associations between genetic polymorphisms in the innate immunity genes and BOS were also found. Especially the association of two genetic variants in TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) is of great interest because there is evidence that carriers of the minor allele have a reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines on stimulation, which might have a protective effect on the pulmonary epithelium (36). The functionality of the other SNPs in the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 genes has not been investigated (22); however, the risk alleles of these SNPs might contribute to the development of BOS by an increased secretion of cytokines and chemokines that is followed by injury of the pulmonary epithelium. The functionality of the genetic polymorphisms in the CD14, MBL, and KIR genes is known as well. First, CD14 binds to lipopolysaccharide and promotes signaling through TLR4 (37). Homozygotes for the risk allele of CD14 had higher levels of CD14, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in their peripheral blood implying a heightened state of innate immune activation (8). Second, the Y allele of MBL was found to be associated with high production of the gene product that may result in more inflammation and tissue damage and an increased antigen presentation (38). Third, natural killer (NK) cells are important components of the innate immunity and their activation is influenced by KIRs (39). KIR haplotypes are associated with the number of functional inhibitory and activating KIR genes. Haplotype A contains six inhibitory and one activating KIR gene, and this haplotype is associated with functional down-regulation of the NK-cell activity. Haplotype B contains a mixture of functional activating and inhibiting KIRs (40, 41). The association between haplotype A and BOS is against the expectation, because the presence of haplotype A on NK cells is associated with less reactivity against donor cells recognized on lung allografts and thus the absence of BOS (24).
Finally, a genetic association was found between BOS and MMP7, a repair gene. MMP-7 is involved in the repair of the pulmonary epithelium, and its expression is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level (42). The genetic polymorphisms in the MMP7 gene may contribute to aberrant tissue repair and fibrosis through insufficient levels of MMP-7 (25).
The foregoing evidence supports that genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and in a repair gene might contribute to the development of BOS by influencing the inflammatory response and the process of fibrogenesis. However, the association of genetic polymorphisms in the innate immunity genes and in MMP7 with BOS has never been replicated; therefore, validation in an independent cohort is required.
APPLICATION OF GENETIC RISK PROFILING TO CLINICAL PRACTICE
In the future, genetic risk profiling may become a tool for the clinician to stratify the risk of developing BOS after lung transplantation and to adjust the treatment. Palmer et al. (43) already suggested that TLR4 genotyping before transplant permits assessment of the risk for acute rejection. In addition, genetic risk profiling may allow individualization of the immunosuppressive treatment. For example, if a lung transplant recipient has a genetic profile conferring a greater risk of BOS after lung transplantation, it is not unlikely that he/she may benefit from adaptation of the standard immunosuppressive treatment regime. Furthermore, knowledge of the genetic polymorphisms that contribute to BOS might lead to alternative therapies to prevent or treat BOS, such as prevention of the activation of innate immunity through TLRs or inhibition of IL-6, IFN-γ, and TGF-β, that is, by blocking their receptors, to slow down the inflammation and fibrosis. Lung transplant recipients receive multiple anti-inflammatory medications to prevent acute and chronic rejection. Nowadays, the treatment of BOS consists of augmenting or changing the type of immunosuppressive drug (3). Recently, there is evidence that treatment of lung transplant recipients with azithromycin has promising results. A randomized controlled trial showed that azithromycin prophylaxis after lung transplantation attenuates the inflammatory response, improves the FEV1, and reduced the occurrence of BOS (44). Furthermore, treatment of BOSpos patients with azithromycin led to an increase in FEV1 and to a better survival (45, 46). Azithromycin modulates, in particular, the innate immune response by decreasing the response of several cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-8, and TNF-α, inhibiting the chemotaxis of neutrophils, inducing the apoptosis of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and disturbing the interaction between host and pathogen (31).
With the knowledge that BOS is also a fibrotic disease, the question arises whether the treatment of BOS might profit from antifibrotic agents, next to the anti-inflammatory agents.
Although risk stratification of lung transplant recipients with genetic profiling seems to be a promising approach for the future, which absolutely warrants further research, the results of the present studies discussed in this review are not yet sufficient to implement the use of a genetic profile into clinical practice.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE
While comparing and summarizing the literature, several limitations were encountered in the studies on genetic polymorphisms and the development of BOS.
First, in most studies only a few genetic polymorphisms or the same subset of genes were studied, which makes the list of candidate gene studies far from exhaustive. There is evidence that a combination of risk alleles is present in BOSpos patients. For example, in a study on genetic polymorphisms in several TLR genes, BOSpos patients had more risk alleles compared with BOSneg patients and controls (22). Furthermore, concomitant presence of high-expression SNPs in both the IL6 and the IFNG gene was higher in BOSpos patients than in BOSneg patients (11). In the light of genetic profiling, future association studies should investigate a combination of multiple genes. For example, in addition to MMP-7, other MMPs have shown to be involved in the development of BOS by their role in remodeling and degradation of the extracellular matrix and, therefore, might be interesting candidate genes (47–49). For the future, aiming at identifying genes relevant in BOS candidate genes can also be selected on the basis of their assumed involvement in pathways leading to BOS. Genetic polymorphisms in IFNG and its gene product are both associated with the development of BOS (50–52), therefore, receptors of IFN-γ and pathways that are activated by IFN-γ might be promising as well. An alternative way of identifying pathways involved in the development of BOS might benefit from whole genome association studies or SNP chips for specific pathway analysis. However, these approaches require a large group of patients to correct for type 1 errors.
Second, the sizes of most study populations were small, which might influence the results through insufficient statistical power. In addition, other risk factors for BOS, such as human leukocyte antigen mismatches, autoimmune responses, cytomegalovirus infection, and type of transplantation, are difficult to control in a statistical analysis because of the small sample size. In larger cohorts, these different risk factors should be included in a multivariate analysis together with the genetic profile, thus enabling a more accurate prediction of the risk of developing BOS.
Third, the follow-up period between the studies is different. The development of BOS is a time-dependent diagnosis; therefore, studies with a relatively short follow-up do not allow BOS to develop and this may lead to false conclusions.
Fourth, the definition BOS or allograft fibrosis is different between studies. Some studies use the BOS criteria according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines, while others use histological criteria to grade fibrosis, and in some studies, the definition of allograft fibrosis or BOS is lacking. In addition, RAS and two different phenotypes of BOS are identified as described earlier (27–29). The existence of these subtypes needs to be taken into consideration in future studies.
Fifth, in the majority of studies, the ethnic composition is not described, which influences the results because ethnicity influences the distribution of genetic polymorphisms, as reported in cytokine genes (53, 54).
Finally, differences in immunosuppressive treatment might lead to discrepancies in the results of the various groups, because immunosuppressive medication might mask a possible effect of the genetic polymorphisms. To promote the implementation of genetic profiling, we underline the proposal of Holweg et al. (7) of starting a database, in which allele and genotype frequencies of both donor and recipient, standardized definitions for complications after transplantation, and characteristics of transplant recipients are collected to improve gene association studies on BOS in the future.
The results of this review show that genetic polymorphisms in cytokine, innate immunity, and repair genes have been linked to the susceptibility to develop BOS after lung transplantation. However, exact causality of many of the associations, for example, by regulating the inflammatory response, cytokine and chemokine production, and facilitation of repair, still needs to be proven. Combining of the relevant genetic associations into a SNP chip for the stratification of the risk to develop BOS might be a promising approach. Genetic profiling could help clinicians to set out individualized treatment regimens for the prevention and treatment of BOS. Further studies are, however, needed to prove this concept.
1. Studer SM, Levy RD, McNeil K, et al.. Lung transplant outcomes: A review of survival, graft function, physiology, health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Eur Respir J 2004; 24: 674.
2. Weigt SS, Wallace WD, Derhovanessian A, et al.. Chronic allograft rejection: Epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 31: 189.
3. Belperio JA, Weigt SS, Fishbein MC, et al.. Chronic lung allograft rejection: Mechanisms and therapy. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2009; 6: 108.
4. Bowdish ME, Arcasoy SM, Wilt JS, et al.. Surrogate markers and risk factors for chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Am J Transplant 2004; 4: 1171.
5. Estenne M, Maurer JR, Boehler A, et al.. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome 2001: An update of the diagnostic criteria. J Heart Lung Transplant 2002; 21: 297.
6. Knight JC. Regulatory polymorphisms underlying complex disease traits. J Mol Med (Berl) 2005; 83: 97.
7. Holweg CT, Weimar W, Uitterlinden AG, et al.. Clinical impact of cytokine gene polymorphisms in heart and lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2004; 23: 1017.
8. Palmer SM, Klimecki W, Yu L, et al.. Genetic regulation of rejection and survival following human lung transplantation by the innate immune receptor CD14. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 693.
9. Palmer SM, Burch LH, Trindade AJ, et al.. Innate immunity influences long-term outcomes after human lung transplant. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171: 780.
10. Snyder LD, Hartwig MG, Ganous T, et al.. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are not associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome or survival after lung transplant. J Heart Lung Transplant 2006; 25: 1330.
11. Lu KC, Jaramillo A, Lecha RL, et al.. Interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma gene polymorphisms in the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Transplantation 2002; 74: 1297.
12. Eskdale J, Gallagher G, Verweij CL, et al.. Interleukin 10 secretion in relation to human IL-10 locus haplotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 9465.
13. Bouma G, Crusius JB, Oudkerk Pool M, et al.. Secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha and lymphotoxin alpha in relation to polymorphisms in the TNF genes and HLA-DR alleles. Relevance for inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Immunol 1996; 43: 456.
14. Fishman D, Faulds G, Jeffery R, et al.. The effect of novel polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene on IL-6 transcription and plasma IL-6 levels, and an association with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis. J Clin Invest 1998; 102: 1369.
15. Goldstein DR, Palmer SM. Role of Toll-like receptor-driven innate immunity in thoracic organ transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2005; 24: 1721.
16. Jackson A, Palmer S, Davis RD, et al.. Cytokine genotypes in kidney, heart, and lung recipients: Consequences for acute and chronic rejection. Transplant Proc 2001; 33: 489.
17. Vamvakopoulos JE, Taylor CJ, Green C, et al.. Interleukin 1 and chronic rejection: Possible genetic links in human heart allografts. Am J Transplant 2002; 2: 76.
18. Awad M, Pravica V, Perrey C, et al.. CA repeat allele polymorphism in the first intron of the human interferon-gamma gene is associated with lung allograft fibrosis. Hum Immunol 1999; 60: 343.
19. El-Gamel A, Awad MR, Hasleton PS, et al.. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1) genotype and lung allograft fibrosis. J Heart Lung Transplant 1999; 18: 517.
20. Awad MR, El-Gamel A, Hasleton P, et al.. Genotypic variation in the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene: Association with transforming growth factor-beta1 production, fibrotic lung disease, and graft fibrosis after lung transplantation. Transplantation 1998; 66: 1014.
21. Vamvakopoulos JE, Taylor CJ, Green C, et al.. Genetic modulators of interleukin 1 activity influence the development of chronic rejection in human thoracic allografts. Transplant Proc 2001; 33: 1563.
22. Kastelijn EA, van Moorsel CH, Rijkers GT, et al.. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes associated with development of bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010; 29: 665.
23. Munster JM, van der Bij W, Breukink MB, et al.. Association between donor MBL promoter haplotype and graft survival and the development of BOS after lung transplantation. Transplantation 2008; 86: 1857.
24. Kwakkel-van Erp JM, van de Graaf EA, Paantjens AW, et al.. The killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) group A haplotype is associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2008; 27: 995.
25. Kastelijn EA, van Moorsel CH, Ruven HJ, et al.. Genetic polymorphisms in MMP7 and reduced serum levels associate with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010; 29: 680.
26. Pravica V, Perrey C, Stevens A, et al.. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the first intron of the human IFN-gamma gene: Absolute correlation with a polymorphic CA microsatellite marker of high IFN-gamma production. Hum Immunol 2000; 61: 863.
27. Sato M, Waddell TK, Wagnetz U, et al.. Restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS): A novel form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. J Heart Lung Transplant 2011; 30: 735.
28. Verleden GM, Vos R, De Vleeschauwer SI, et al.. Obliterative bronchiolitis following lung transplantation: From old to new concepts? Transpl Int 2009; 22: 771.
29. Vanaudenaerde BM, Meyts I, Vos R, et al.. A dichotomy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation revealed by azithromycin therapy. Eur Respir J 2008; 32: 832.
30. Verleden SE, Vos R, Mertens V, et al.. Heterogeneity of chronic lung allograft dysfunction: Insights from protein expression in broncho alveolar lavage. J Heart Lung Transplant 2011; 30: 667.
31. Friedlander AL, Albert RK. Chronic macrolide therapy in inflammatory airways diseases. Chest 2010; 138: 1202.
32. Kleeberger W, Versmold A, Rothämel T, et al.. Increased chimerism of bronchial and alveolar epithelium in human lung allografts undergoing chronic injury. Am J Pathol 2003; 162: 1487.
33. Pravica V, Asderakis A, Perrey C, et al.. In vitro production of IFN-gamma correlates with CA repeat polymorphism in the human IFN-gamma gene. Eur J Immunogenet 1999; 26: 1.
34. Magnan A, Mege JL, Escallier JC, et al.. Balance between alveolar macrophage IL-6 and TGF-beta in lung-transplant recipients. Marseille and Montreal Lung Transplantation Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 153: 1431.
35. Wynn TA. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis. J Pathol 2008; 214: 199.
36. Kiechl S, Lorenz E, Reindl M, et al.. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and atherogenesis. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 185.
37. Triantafilou M, Triantafilou K. Lipopolysaccharide recognition: CD14, TLRs and the LPS-activation cluster. Trends Immunol 2002; 23: 301.
38. Garred P, Larsen F, Seyfarth J, et al.. Mannose-binding lectin and its genetic variants. Genes Immun 2006; 7: 85.
39. Huard B, Karlsson L, Triebel F. KIR down-regulation on NK cells is associated with down-regulation of activating receptors and NK cell inactivation. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31: 1728.
40. Hsu KC, Liu XR, Selvakumar A, et al.. Killer Ig-like receptor haplotype analysis by gene content: Evidence for genomic diversity with a minimum of six basic framework haplotypes, each with multiple subsets. J Immunol 2002; 169: 5118.
41. Marsh SG, Parham P, Dupont B, et al.. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) nomenclature report, 2002. Immunogenetics 2003; 55: 220.
42. Chakraborti S, Mandal M, Das S, et al.. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases: An overview. Mol Cell Biochem 2003; 253: 269.
43. Palmer SM, Burch LH, Davis RD, et al.. The role of innate immunity in acute allograft rejection after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 168: 628.
44. Vos R, Vanaudenaerde BM, Verleden SE, et al.. A randomised controlled trial of azithromycin to prevent chronic rejection after lung transplantation. Eur Respir J 2011; 37: 164.
45. Vos R, Vanaudenaerde BM, Ottevaere A, et al.. Long-term azithromycin therapy for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome: Divide and conquer? J Heart Lung Transplant 2010; 29: 1358.
46. Jain R, Hachem RR, Morrell MR, et al.. Azithromycin is associated with increased survival in lung transplant recipients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010; 29: 531.
47. Banerjee B, Ling KM, Sutanto EN, et al.. The airway epithelium is a direct source of matrix degrading enzymes in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. J Heart Lung Transplant 2011; 30: 1175.
48. Riise GC, Ericson P, Bozinovski S, et al.. Increased net gelatinase but not serine protease activity in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010; 29: 800.
49. Taghavi S, Krenn K, Jaksch P, et al.. Broncho-alveolar lavage matrix metalloproteases as a sensitive measure of bronchiolitis obliterans. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 1548.
50. Bharat A, Narayanan K, Street T, et al.. Early posttransplant inflammation promotes the development of alloimmunity and chronic human lung allograft rejection. Transplantation 2007; 83: 150.
51. Bharat A, Fields RC, Steward N, et al.. CD4+25+ regulatory T cells limit Th1-autoimmunity by inducing IL-10 producing T cells following human lung transplantation. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 1799.
52. Hodge G, Hodge S, Chambers D, et al.. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is associated with absence of suppression of peripheral blood Th1 proinflammatory cytokines. Transplantation 2009; 88: 211.
53. Cox ED, Hoffmann SC, DiMercurio BS, et al.. Cytokine polymorphic analyses indicate ethnic differences in the allelic distribution of interleukin-2 and interleukin-6. Transplantation 2001; 72: 720.
54. Hoffmann SC, Stanley EM, Cox ED, et al.. Ethnicity greatly influences cytokine gene polymorphism distribution. Am J Transplant 2002; 2: 560.
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome; Genetic polymorphisms; Innate immunity genes; Cytokine genes
© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.