Skip Navigation LinksHome > Published Ahead-of-Print > Differential Cytokine, Chemokine and Growth Factor Expressio...
Transplantation:
doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000000269
Clinical and Translational Research: PDF Only

Differential Cytokine, Chemokine and Growth Factor Expression in Phenotypes of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

Verleden, Stijn E.; Ruttens, David; Vos, Robin; Vandermeulen, Elly; Moelants, Eva; Mortier, Anneleen; Van Raemdonck, Dirk E.; Proost, Paul; Schols, Dominique; Verleden, Geert M.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart M.

Published Ahead-of-Print
Collapse Box

Abstract

Background: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction is a heterogeneous entity limiting long-term survival after lung transplantation. Different clinical phenotypes (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome [BOS]-neutrophilic BOS-restrictive allograft syndrome [RAS]) have been identified but the mechanisms remain elusive.

Methods: In this study, we measured 34 different cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 20 stable patients, 20 patients suffering from non-neutrophilic BOS, 17 from neutrophilic BOS, and 20 from RAS using classic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and multiplex technology.

Results: Total cell count and % neutrophils were elevated in neutrophilic BOS and RAS compared to stable and non-neutrophilic BOS patients, whereas also the % eosinophils was elevated at diagnosis of RAS. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1[beta] (P<0.01), IL-1R[alpha] (P<0.001), IL-6 (P<0.001), IL-8/CXCL8 (P<0.001), IP-10/CXCL10 (P<0.05), MCP-1/CCL2 (P<0.05), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1[alpha]/CCL3 (P<0.001), MIP-1[beta]/CCL4, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; P<0.05) were differentially regulated in RAS compared to stable, whereas in neutrophilic BOS IL-1[beta] (P<0.001), IL-1R[alpha] (P<0.01), IL-7 (P<0.05), IL-8/CXCL8 (P<0.001), MCP-3/CXCCL7 (P<0.05) and MIP-1[alpha]/CCL-3 (P<0.05) were significantly upregulated compared to stable patients. We could not detect any differences between non-neutrophilic BOS and stable patients. Interestingly, bronchoalveolar lavage IL-6, interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10/CXCL10 and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant/chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (ITAC/CXCL10) were associated with survival after diagnosis in RAS patients.

Conclusion: There were major differences in cytokine and chemokine expression in our different study groups. Especially IL-6, but also IP-10/CXCL10, and VEGF may be interesting mediators in RAS.

(C) 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.