Kidney transplantation is a successful treatment for end-stage renal disease. We studied demographic and psychosocial variables that relate to compliance behaviors following renal transplant.
One hundred and five renal allograft recipients, with a minimum of 18 months follow-up, were studied. A biographical questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Social Support Appraisals Questionnaire were used as measuring instruments. Specifically for this study, we designed a Health Belief Model Questionnaire, a Patient and Provider Relationship Questionnaire, a Compliance Self-Report Questionnaire, and a Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Compliance was determined by cyclosporine whole blood levels >30 ng/ml, maintenance of ideal body weight (<20% gain), and percentage of missed clinic visits (<20%). Data was analyzed using discriminant analysis, Pearson's correlation, and chi-square.
Four groups were identified, i.e., overall compliant (n=25), noncompliant with diet (n=29), noncompliant with medication (n=27), and overall noncompliant (n=29). No patient missed >20% of clinic visits. Discriminant function analysis distinguished patients who were compliant from those who were not. Males were more likely to be noncompliant with medication, whereas females were more likely to be noncompliant with diet. Noncompliance was also associated with increased numbers of prescribed medications, depression, black race, locus of control attributed to powerful others, unemployment, as well as the perceived amount of social and family support. Patients with failed grafts (n=14) were more depressed (P<0.05), perceived less benefit from the treatment regimen (P<0.01), and had less confidence in their care providers (P<0.05) than those recipients of successful grafts (n=91).
In conclusion, this study identifies a number of psychosocial and demographic variables that impact on patient compliance behaviors after renal transplant. Interventional strategies to obviate noncompliance will need to consider these heterogeneous variables in order to maximize long-term renal allograft survival.
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