Because of the widely acknowledged controversy in nonaccidental injury, the radiologist involved in such cases must be thoroughly familiar with the imaging, clinical, surgical, pathological, biomechanical, and forensic literature from all perspectives and with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Children with suspected nonaccidental injury versus accidental injury must not only receive protective evaluation but also require a timely and complete clinical and imaging workup to evaluate pattern of injury and timing issues and to consider the mimics of abuse. All imaging findings must be correlated with clinical findings (including current and past medical record) and with laboratory and pathological findings (eg, surgical, autopsy). The medical and imaging evidence, particularly when there is only central nervous system injury, cannot reliably diagnose intentional injury. Only the child protection investigation may provide the basis for inflicted injury in the context of supportive medical, imaging, biomechanical, or pathological findings.