From Sign to Word: Considering Modality Constraints in ASL/English Bilingual Education.Singleton, Jenny L. PhD; Supalla, Samuel PhD; Litchfield, Sharon MS; Schley, Sara EdDTopics in Language Disorders: August 1998 ASL Proficiency and English Literacy Acquisition: New Perspectives: PDF Only Abstract : As the bilingual education movement receives greater attention within deaf education settings, a theoretical framework for organizing and implementing the American Sign Language (ASL) and English learning experiences among deaf students has not been fully articulated in the literature to date. In this article, the traditional notion of ASL/English bilingualism is critically examined. This model is then contrasted with the "ASL/English as a spoken language" bilingual model in which the modality constraints facing the deaf child are presented as the fundamental issue for ASL/English bilingualism. Empirical and applied research supporting this modalityconstrained bilingual model is also discussed. (C) 1998 Aspen Publishers, Inc.