We present a primer on the adaptability of the brain. We start with a brief historical overview of the biology of neuroplasticity. Environmental enrichment, social stimulation, exercise, and pharmacologic interventions (eg, antidepressant drugs) have all been reported to influence neuroplasticity. Since adaptive changes in the brain involve changes in how genes are expressed, we look at some approaches to that. Next, we consider a vital, but often overlooked, factor in brain development throughout life—social interactions. We conclude with a future perspective.