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Bladder cancer: Risk factors, diagnosis, and management

Farling, Kristen Burns

Nurse Practitioner . 42(3):26-33, March 7, 2017.

Bladder cancer is the most common genitourinary cancer in the United States. Symptoms of bladder cancer mimic those of a urinary tract infection, which can delay timely diagnosis. This article reviews the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer along with management options to safely care for this patient population.

Cannabis for posttraumatic stress disorder: A neurobiological approach to treatment

Krumm, Bryan A.

Nurse Practitioner . 41(1):50-54, January 16, 2016.

The endocannabinoid system is intricately involved in regulation of the neurobiological processes that underlie the symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article discusses the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD and the use of cannabis for treating PTSD in the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program.

The Million Hearts initiative: Guidelines and best practices

Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Orsolini, Liana; Gawlik, Kate; More

Nurse Practitioner . 41(2):46-53, February 18, 2016.

Million Hearts® is a national initiative to improve the nation's cardiovascular health through evidence-based practices and prevention. This article reviews the ABCS of Million Hearts with an emphasis on nurse practitioner-led care models. Recommendations for clinical practice, education, research, and health policy are highlighted.

28th Annual APRN Legislative Update: Advancements continue for APRN practice

Phillips, Susanne J.

Nurse Practitioner . 41(1):21-48, January 16, 2016.

This year's review and annual advanced practice registered nurse legislative update heralds significant state legislative accomplishments in the areas of APRN practice authority, reimbursement, and prescriptive authority.

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Expanding oral treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus

Ashjian, Emily; Tingen, Jeffrey

Nurse Practitioner . 42(4):8-15, April 16, 2017.

Glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is important to prevent future complications, including microvascular and macrovascular disease. A novel class of medications, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, presents an additional oral treatment option.

Integrating palliative care into primary care for patients with chronic, life-limiting conditions

Cleary, Ann Selena

Nurse Practitioner . 41(3):42-48, March 15, 2016.

As longevity increases, individuals with chronic, life-limiting conditions will live longer with disease burden and functional decline. Nurse practitioners can integrate symptom management, early decision-making, and supportive care into the primary care setting to improve quality of life and decrease the economic and emotional impact at the end of life.

Do workplace policies influence a woman's decision to breastfeed?

Winegar, Rhonda; Johnson, Alisha

Nurse Practitioner . 42(4):34-39, April 16, 2017.

This literature review addresses workplace breastfeeding policies in the United States. Breastfeeding yields many important benefits to both mother and infants, yet workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding.

Identifying malnutrition: From acute care to discharge and beyond

Tyler, Renay D.; Guenter, Peggi

Nurse Practitioner . 42(4):18-24, April 16, 2017.

Nutrition assessment and intervention significantly contribute to the well-being of patients. NPs should advocate that patients be appropriately evaluated and implement recommendations as part of a comprehensive care plan to avoid malnutrition in patients while they are in the hospital and when they return home.

Diagnosis and treatment for chronic migraine

Moriarty, Maureen; Mallick-Searle, Theresa

Nurse Practitioner . 41(6):18-32, June 19, 2016.

Migraine is a debilitating headache disorder that is underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide, partially attributable to misdiagnosis and expectations of poor treatment outcomes. This article provides a review of chronic migraine, with special emphasis on the role of NPs.

The transition of care from hospital to home for patients with hypertension

Franklin, Mary M.; McCoy, Mary Anne

Nurse Practitioner . 42(2):12-18, February 12, 2017.

Approximately 50% to 75% of hospital patients have hypertension. This article describes the transition of care from the hospital to home for patients with hypertension and discusses practice implications for NPs.

Approaches to male hypogonadism in primary care

Lawrence, Kristi L.; Stewart, Felicia; Larson, Brandi M.

Nurse Practitioner . 42(2):32-37, February 12, 2017.

Evidence suggests that providers are not adhering to current testosterone replacement therapy guidelines when treating male hypogonadism. Understanding diagnosis and management is further complicated by conflicting recommendations among available guidelines. NPs must select and follow the best guideline recommendations available to optimally treat this condition.

Evidence-based treatment of chronic kidney disease

Smith, Cynthia Ann

Nurse Practitioner . 41(11):42-48, November 19, 2016.

To aid in diagnosis and treatment, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease provides an evidence-based approach. This article reviews the major recommendations of this guideline.

Pharmacologic pain management at the end of life

Davies, Pamela Stitzlein

Nurse Practitioner . 41(5):26-37, May 19, 2016.

Escalating pain is common in the final weeks of life, requiring skilled management to assist patients with a life-limiting illness. Using a cancer model, pharmacologic approaches to treat pain in the final weeks of life are reviewed. The purpose is to improve care of the dying and contribute toward the goal of a “good death.”

Improving end-of-life care: Recommendations from the IOM

Dobbins, Elizabeth H.

Nurse Practitioner . 41(9):26-34, September 22, 2016.

A 2014 consensus report by the Institute of Medicine offers recommendations for healthcare providers to decrease unwanted care and improve the quality of life at the end of life. This article discusses the recommendations of interest to advanced practice registered nurses and applies them to a common patient and family experience.

Acne vulgaris: A review of causes and treatment options

Well, Danielle

Nurse Practitioner . 38(10):22-31, October 10, 2013.

Acne vulgaris is a disorder of the sebaceous follicle. The cause is multifactorial, and both adolescents and adults can be affected. Acne is associated with a significant financial burden and considerable psychological distress. Treatment options are reviewed in this article, including over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, and in-office procedures.

A review of knee pain in adolescent females

Lipman, Rachel; John, Rita Marie

Nurse Practitioner . 40(7):28-36, July 15, 2015.

Primary care practitioners are in a position to educate patients and parents of the risk factors that may increase the incidence of knee pain in adolescent females. This article highlights patellofemoral pain syndrome, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, and meniscal tears. This review encourages nurse practitioners to identify potential risk factors for injury.

Treating the patient with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Chaney, Amanda

Nurse Practitioner . 40(11):36-42, November 15, 2015.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a worldwide health crisis. Although lifestyle modifications are the first-line treatment, the NP should be aware of current and future medication management to help the patient live a healthy life.

Prevention of Alzheimer disease: The roles of nutrition and primary care

Bane, Tabitha J.; Cole, Connie

Nurse Practitioner . 40(5):30-35, May 15, 2015.

Risk factors for developing Alzheimer disease include hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. Due to a lack of effective treatments for Alzheimer disease, nutrition and primary prevention become important.

Prescription drug monitoring programs: Combating prescription drug misuse

Gudoski, Anthony J.

Nurse Practitioner . 40(11):28-33, November 15, 2015.

To help combat prescription drug misuse, most states have implemented Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs)—electronic databases that collect and track prescription data and flag suspected diversion activities. Equipped with expanding prescriptive authority, NPs are now poised to become vital change agents in improving the effectiveness of PDMPs.

Suicide risk assessment in high-risk adolescents

Gray, Barbara P.; Dihigo, Sharolyn K.

Nurse Practitioner . 40(9):30-37, September 13, 2015.

A significant number of adolescents experience depression and other mental health disorders that may put them at risk for suicide. Depression and suicide risk screening can help healthcare providers prevent suicides in this population.

Managing hyperlipidemia The updated cholesterol treatment guidelines

Scordo, Kristine Anne

Nurse Practitioner . 39(7):28-32, July 13, 2014.

The ACC/AHA 2013 cholesterol treatment guidelines focus on lowering the risk of heart disease and stroke and not on targeted treatment goals in adult patients. This article offers a synopsis of the new guidelines and how to apply them in clinical practice.

The CMS Annual Wellness Visit: Bridging the gap

Hain, Debra J.

Nurse Practitioner . 39(7):18-26, July 13, 2014.

In 2011, Medicare beneficiaries became eligible for an Annual Wellness Visit, which includes a health risk assessment and a customized wellness or personal prevention plan. This article discusses strategies for performing the exam in a primary care setting.

Red eye emergencies in primary care

Ossorio, Anthony

Nurse Practitioner . 40(12):46-53, December 12, 2015.

Severe red eye conditions can be the result of intraocular inflammation, corneal insults or inflammation, and acute glaucoma. These pathologies require the knowledge and assessment tools of an ophthalmologist. NPs should maintain a high level of suspicion during the history and physical exam and ask key questions that can lead to the correct diagnosis and management of these ocular pathologies. This article will discuss red eye emergencies that the NP should promptly recognize and refer to ophthalmology.

Identification and management of bipolar disorder

Scrandis, Debra A.

Nurse Practitioner . 39(10):30-37, October 15, 2014.

Bipolar disorder is a complex and chronic mental illness. Individuals with this disorder usually have medical comorbidities needing management in primary care. This article focuses on bipolar identification and medication management concerns for primary care nurse providers.

Allergic rhinitis: Diagnosis through management

Krouse, Helene J.; Krouse, John H.

Nurse Practitioner . 39(4):20-28, April 13, 2014.

Allegic rhinitis (AR) is an immune hypersensitivity response of the nasal mucosa affecting children and adults. Patients with a genetic predisposition become sensitized to certain allergens over time with repeated exposures. This article discusses AR from diagnosis through treatment.

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