INSTRUCTIONS Frailty in the older adult: Will you recognize the signs?
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Frailty in the older adult: Will you recognize the signs?
General Purpose: To provide information about the distinguishing characteristics and care management of frail older adults. Learning Objectives: After reading this article and taking the test, you should be able to: 1. Identify factors associated with frailty syndrome and their significance. 2. Select assessment techniques and care management strategies for frail older adults.
1. Which statement about frailty in older adults is accurate?
a. Frailty increases the risk of chronic disease.
b. The incidence of frailty is greater in men.
c. Frailty results from dysregulation of interacting body systems.
d. Hospitalization rates are inversely proportional to the degree of frailty.
2. The proximate causes of frailty are thought to be a loss of function associated with
a. inflammation and malnutrition.
b. endocrine disorders.
c. sarcopenia and osteoporosis.
d. falls and hospitalizations.
3. Recognizing potentially frail older adults in clinical practice
a. increases the probability of hospitalization.
b. can reduce healthcare costs.
c. prevents frailty from impacting the family.
d. reduces the need for social services.
4. An 85-year-old woman who has decreased muscle mass and walks with a slow shuffle but whose weight is unchanged is considered
a. average for her age.
5. Inadequate nutrition and chronic pain are considered
a. causative factors for frailty.
b. normal in a prefrail person.
c. influential factors in the progression of frailty.
d. key components of the frailty syndrome.
6. The catalyst for a robust older adult to become frail is
a. advancing age.
b. loss of reserve and resilience.
c. comorbid disease states.
d. poverty and malnutrition.
7. Which statement is correct about unintentional weight loss and sarcopenia?
a. Sarcopenia is a minor aspect of frailty syndrome.
b. Loss of appetite is related to impaired response to insulin.
c. Anorexia of aging may cause unintentional weight loss.
d. Decreased apoptosis at the cellular level causes muscle atrophy.
8. What is the primary message of the frailty cycle for clinicians?
a. Decreased energy expenditure exacerbates the anorexia of aging.
b. Edentulism is the cause of most unintentional weight loss.
c. Older adults choose more nutrient-poor foods due to cost.
d. Low serum levels of vitamins and minerals are associated with anorexia.
9. The research connecting cognitive impairment to frailty suggests
a. dementia is caused by inflammation.
b. AD is associated with persistent pain.
c. a link between the stress response in the hippocampus and the frail brain.
d. chronic anemia is a precursor to frail brain.
10. Which statement about inflammation is accurate?
a. Anemia and diabetes are unrelated to inflammation.
b. Many chronic diseases are associated with inflammation and predispose frailty.
c. Frailty is caused by reduced levels of proinflammatory factors.
d. Proinflammatory factors have little effect on muscle injury and repair.
11. Which factor is not independently associated with frailty?
d. mineral deficiencies
12. It is especially important to screen an older adult for frailty
a. prior to age 70 as a baseline.
b. during all routine visits.
c. at the request of family members.
d. following exacerbation of a chronic illness.
13. The FFI
a. has not been researched for efficacy.
b. requires answers to only five simple questions.
c. requires the presence of at least three of five criteria.
d. is based on the CGA.
14. Mood, cognition, and incontinence are elements assessed by the
a. FRAIL scale.
15. Self-rating frailty questionnaires
a. are objective only when completed by a family member.
b. rarely provide valuable screening information.
c. require the provider to supply information on medications.
d. have a risk of nonresponse.
16. Which of these factors was imperative in determining W's frailty status?
a. the CGA
b. a history of chronic disease
c. limited physical activity
d. cognitive decline
17. Physical activity prescribed for the frail older adult
a. should include primarily aerobic exercise.
b. can reverse sarcopenia and frailty.
c. should not be encouraged if the patient is unsteady.
d. is the primary treatment for frail brain.