INSTRUCTIONS Sinus node dysfunction: Recognition and treatment
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Sinus node dysfunction Recognition and treatment
General Purpose: To provide information about diagnosing and managing SND. Learning Objectives: After reading this article and taking this test, the reader should be able to: 1. Explain the etiology and pathophysiology of SND. 2. Describe diagnosis and treatment options for SND.
- SND refers to
- malformation of the heart anatomy.
- abnormalities that cause heart block.
- atrial impulse generation/propagation.
- a congenital condition involving the sinus node.
- What is the mean age in years for diagnosis of SND?
- Most cases of SND are
- Which of the following is an intrinsic factor in SND development?
- carotid sinus hypersensitivity
- intracranial hypertension
- Intrinsic changes are most frequently caused by
- cardiac medications.
- rheumatic fever.
- congenital heart malformations involving the SA node region.
- degenerative and/or fibrotic changes in the SA node region.
- With increasing age, the SACT
- remains unchanged.
- becomes erratic.
- What medications are most likely to affect sinus node function?
- angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
- calcium channel blockers
- Excessive physical training might cause syncope, bradycardia, or AV conduction abnormalities related to
- muscle stimulation.
- heightened vagal tone.
- The most frequent ECG manifestation in SND is
- atrial fibrillation.
- heart block.
- persistent sinus bradycardia.
- ST segment elevation.
- Failure of the sinus rate to increase adequately in response to physical stress is called
- sinus arrest.
- chronotropic incompetence.
- AV conduction deficiency.
- A diagnosis of SND requires correlation of symptoms with
- atrial fibrillation.
- physical activities.
- Long-term monitoring is necessary
- for patients who have difficulty activating the monitor.
- to capture the onset of symptoms.
- for symptoms that are infrequent or transient.
- for older adult patients.
- In chronotropic incompetence, the sinus node cannot achieve what percent of the age-predicted HR?
- How is maximum-predicted HR calculated?
- 120 plus age
- 220 plus age
- 200 minus age
- 220 minus age
- The focus of treatment of SND is
- alleviating symptoms.
- repairing the SA node.
- preventing heart block.
- decreasing cardiac output.
- The only effective treatment for symptomatic bradycardia is
- temporary cardiac pacing.
- permanent cardiac pacing.
- the right combination of medications.
- heart-strengthening exercise.
- Which is not an advantage of dual-chamber pacing?
- prevents syncope during AV block
- maintains AV synchrony
- reduces risk of atrial fibrillation
- high percentage of right ventricular pacing
- Which of the following contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with SND?
- thromboembolic complications associated with atrial fibrillation
- prolonged bradycardia associated with increased exercise
- adverse reactions of cardiac medications
- increasingly frequent episodes of heart block