INSTRUCTIONS Stopping the wave of PAD
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Stopping the wave of PAD
General Purpose: To provide the NP with information needed to diagnose and manage peripheral artery disease (PAD). Learning Objectives: After reading this article and taking this test, the NP will be able to: 1. Explain the pathophysiology, risk factors, and signs/symptoms of PAD. 2. Identify diagnostic tests used for PAD. 3. Discuss medical treatment and management strategies for PAD.
1. The cause of peripheral vascular disease can be
a. venous or arterial but not lymphatic.
b. venous but not arterial.
c. arterial but not venous.
d. arterial, venous, or lymphatic.
2. Which is not an example of PAD?
a. Buerger's disease
b. Raynaud's disease
d. peripheral artery atherosclerosis.
3. About what percentage of patients with PAD present with intermittent claudication?
4. The pain of intermittent claudication typically localizes
a. proximal to the occluded artery.
b. distal to the occluded artery.
c. at the site of the occlusion.
d. throughout the entire length of the limb.
5. Signs of PAD include all the following except
a. extremity warm to touch.
b. decreased lower extremity pulses.
c. thickened, brittle toe nails.
d. shiny skin with hair loss.
6. PAD's severity is best determined by asking which question about the pain relative to exercise?
a. How long after beginning to exercise does the pain occur?
b. How quickly does it dissipate after ending exercise?
c. What type of exercise causes the pain?
d. What is the intensity of exercise that causes the pain?
7. According to the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus, which patients is at increased risk for PAD?
a. ML, age 40 with diabetes
b. KC, age 50 who smokes
c. JW, age 55 who has breast cancer
d. GB, age 60 with asthma
8. Which diagnostic technique should be used for screening patients at risk for PAD?
a. ABI measurement
b. pulse pressure
c. lower extremity ultrasound
d. lower extremity computed tomographic scan
9. To obtain the ABI, divide the brachial systolic blood pressure into the ankle's
a. pulse pressure.
c. systolic pressure.
d. diastolic pressure.
10. The normal range of an ABI is
a. 0.75 and 0.95.
b. 1.0 and 1.3.
c. 1.4 and 1.7.
d. 1.8 and 2.0
11. How many readings of the brachial and ankle pressures should be taken for ABI measurement?
a. 1 of each
b. 2 of each
c. 3 of each
d. 4 of each
12. An ABI of over 1.3 generally indicates
a. normal vasculature.
c. venous insufficiency.
d. arterial calcification.
13. Which statement about diagnostic ABI measurements is accurate?
a. They are a non-Doppler study.
b. They should be done if the ABI is 1.0.
c. They usually require an out of office referral.
d. They are done with a Doppler under angiography.
14. Improvement in intermittent claudication symptoms has been demonstrated by optimizing treatment for
15. Lifestyle modifications for patients with PAD should address exercise and
b. stress reduction.
c. alcohol use.
d. smoking cessation.
16. Which drug is FDA-approved for the treatment of intermittent claudication in PAD?
17. Which antiplatelet drug has been shown to be more effective in reducing the combined risk of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death in patients with PAD?
18. Which exercise goal has demonstrated improved walking efficiency?
a. 30 minutes three times per week for 6 months
b. 30 minutes two times per week for 1 year
c. 1 hour five times per week for 1 month
d. 1 hour three times per week for 6 months