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Nurse Practitioner:
doi: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000369940.55104.5d
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Speak the language of autism

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INSTRUCTIONS Speak the language of autism

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Speak the language of autism

General Purpose: To provide NPs with current information about the diagnosis and management of autism. Learning Objectives: After reading the article and taking this test, the NP should be able to: 1. Explain the prevalence, characteristics, and epidemiology of autism. 2. Identify tools and criteria for diagnosing autism. 3. Describe options for managing autism.

1. The percentage of autistic children with an average IQ or better is approximately

a. 10%.

b. 25%.

c. 50%.

d. 75%.

2. Autism usually manifests between ages

a. 0 to 6 months.

b. 12 to 24 months.

c. 3 to 4 years.

d. 5 to 6 years.

3. U.S. data from 2007 showed the incidence of 8-year-olds with ASD was 1 in

a. 90.

b. 100.

c. 150.

d. 200.

4. The NIH concurred that autism is hereditary, due to evidence

a. that if one identical twin is autistic, the second has a 90% chance of it.

b. of transmission on the X chromosome.

c. of a male-to-female incidence ratio of 2:1.

d. of single gene involvement.

5. Gene variation in families with more than one autistic child has been found on

a. chromosome 1.

b. chromosome 3.

c. chromosome 5.

d. chromosome 7.

6. In mice, two genes were identified to influence autistic-like symptoms, such as

a. communication difficulties.

b. sociability difficulties.

c. difficulty playing with toys.

d. over-focusing on shiny objects.

7. In a study using MRI scans, autistic children ages 2 to 4 were found to have

a. larger than normal brain volume.

b. smaller than normal brain volume.

c. decreased cerebral gray and white matter.

d. decreased cerebral gray matter and increased white matter.

8. Vaccine experts for the AAP and the CDC agree that the MMR vaccine

a. is weakly linked to rising rates of autism.

b. is a significant cause of autism.

c. is not responsible for the rise in autism diagnoses.

d. is one of the multifactorial causes of autism.

9. One of the earliest and most important signs of autism is

a. continual repetition.

b. fear of loud noises.

c. preoccupation with certain objects.

d. failure to develop joint attention.

10. The CARS tool

a. has a reliability for total scores of 0.68.

b. is the most widely used diagnostic tool for autism.

c. rates children on 18 items to detect signs of autism.

d. was developed to monitor infants for signs of autism.

11. The "gold standard" for diagnosing autism is

a. clinical judgment with use of DSM-IV criteria.

b. MRI results in combination with the CARS tool.

c. agreement between two diagnostic tools that detect autism.

d. consistent test and retest results using the same valid tool.

12. The ADI-R tool

a. utilizes child caregiver feedback.

b. has a diagnostic stability of 83%.

c. is a semistructured, clinician-based interview.

d. uses observational data for diagnosis in early childhood.

13. Early intervention programs for children with autism

a. have been found to be ineffective.

b. are programs based on peer interactions.

c. should be based on each child's strengths and weaknesses.

d. provide treatment in a group setting environment.

14. Applied behavior analysis

a. includes 40 hours per week of therapy.

b. claims to decrease autism severity by 42%.

c. is an intensive, home-based behavioral program.

d. involves teacher and child working together on play and life skills.

15. Using home-based behavioral therapy in a U.K. study, the group PEACH

a. benefited from cooperation from schools.

b. integrated the Lovaas program in each home.

c. found the majority of the children responded positively.

d. found behavior improvement in less than 10% of the children.

16. A study evaluating a casein- and gluten-free diet for autistic children showed

a. no statistical difference.

b. improved sociability.

c. the children could not tolerate the diet.

d. increased hyperactivity and tantrums.

17. Which medication is FDA-approved to treat irritability in specific autistic children?

a. haloperidol

b. fluoxetine

c. risperidone

d. sertraline

18. At the time of autism diagnosis, the NP's role is to

a. provide anticipatory guidance.

b. determine the child's outcome.

c. identify the child's future disabilities.

d. explain the curative treatments used for autism.

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