Purpose: The purpose of this study was to track and investigate the effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation after acute myocardial infarction in swine assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Chinese mini-pigs (27±3 kg) were divided into 4 groups, including control groups (groups 1 and 3) and MSCs transplantation groups (group 2, super paramagnetic iron oxide labeled and group 4, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole labeled). Super paramagnetic iron oxide-labeled and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-labeled MSCs (3.0×106 cells/mL) with a volume of 10 mL were injected into the left anterior descending artery by a catheter at 1 week after acute myocardial infarction, respectively. Cell distribution, cardiac functions, and scar tissue were quantitatively assessed by MRI.
Results: The reduction of the T2* value in the myocardium, spleen, and liver in group 2 was significantly greater than that in group 1. MRI showed that function and scar size at baseline and 3 days after cell infusion were not significantly different between groups 1 and 2. Six weeks later left ventricular ejection fraction (P<0.0001), end-systolic volume (P<0.05), the number of dyskinetic segments (P<0.0001), left ventricular weight index (P<0.0001), and the infarcted size (P<0.0001) in group 4 were all improved comparing with those in group 3.
Conclusions: The majority of MSCs entrapped by the extracardial organs were mainly in the spleen. Catheter-based delivery of autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs into infarcted myocardium is feasible and effective.