Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
Sexual Event-Level Characteristics of Condom Use During Anal Intercourse Among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men
Hensel, Devon J. PhD*,†; Rosenberger, Joshua G. PhD, MPH*,‡; Novak, David S. MSW§; Reece, Michael PhD, MPH¶
From the *Section of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; †Department of Sociology, Indiana University Purdue University-Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN; ‡Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA; §OLB Research Institute, Online Buddies, Inc., Cambridge, MA; and ¶Center for Sexual Health Promotion, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Correspondence: Joshua G. Rosenberger, PhD, MPH, Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, 4400 University Dr, MSN 5B7, Fairfax, VA 22030. E-mail: email@example.com.
Received for publication October 19, 2011, and accepted February 7, 2012.
Background: Condom use remains central to sexually transmitted infections/HIV prevention among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). To support the development of accurate and appropriate interventions, a better understanding is needed as to how the characteristics of a given sexual event differentially influence condom use during anal intercourse.
Methods: Daily diary data were collected from (n = 3877) HIV-negative MSM who were members of several online Web sites facilitating social or sexual interactions with other men. Sexual event-specific factors related to condom use during anal intercourse were evaluated using logistic regression, with generalized estimating equation adjustment for multiple within-participant sexual events (STATA, 10.0; all P < 0.05).
Results: Participants contributed 25,149 behavioral diaries. Of these, men reported 730 (2.9%) acts of anal intercourse as insertive partner and 662 (2.6%) as receptive partner. Condoms were used during 25.5% (n = 184) of insertive events, and 18.8% (n = 125) of receptive events. For both insertive and receptive anal roles, condom use was more likely with casual partners (OR = 4.24–6.59). Positive ratings of sexual pleasure were associated with condom use among men who were the insertive partner during anal intercourse, whereas condom nonuse was significantly related to higher ratings of pleasure among men who were the receptive partner.
Conclusions: Event-level relational and sexual-situational factors predict condom use differently, depending on whether men are the insertive or receptive partner in anal intercourse. Understanding these differences will help clinicians and health educators engage MSM in dialogue to increase condom use in situations where it is warranted.
Condom use during anal intercourse is widely promoted among men who have sex with men (MSM) for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.1,2 However, some MSM may not always make regular condom use as their primary strategy of risk reduction,3,4 resulting in the potential for increased HIV incidence linked to unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in this population.5,6 Recent research consistently demonstrates the importance of examining the relational, physical, or emotional contexts in which decisions about UAI are made.7 For example, condom use may be eschewed with main or long-term partners,8,9 or when the benefits of UAI (e.g., increased emotional intimacy or physical pleasure) are perceived to outweigh the risks (e.g., infection).9,10 Other research suggests that condom use decreases with depressed or negative mood,11 closeness with partner,12 higher frequency of oral-genital or manual-genital activities before or in conjunction with anal sex,13 lubricant use,14 greater age difference between partners,15 erection difficulty,10 enema use or rectal douching before sex,16 location of sexual event,17 and recent condom nonuse.18
Much of this contextual understanding, however, remains limited. Reliance on retrospective and/or single event measures (e.g., “How many times in the past 90 days did you have unprotected anal intercourse” or “At your last anal sex event, did you use a condom?”) may mean that current studies over- or under-estimate actual behavior prevalence,19 preventing accurate assessment of how the relationship of contextual factors with condom use differs from one sexual event to another. Alternatively, daily diaries allow researchers to capture, as close to the event's occurrence as possible, information about the characteristics of a given sexual event, thereby reducing the recall bias common with other methods. Additionally, diaries also facilitate repeated measurements across a large volume of anal intercourse and condom use events. This volume is requisite to not only examine the variability of condom use and nonuse across different anal intercourse event but also to better describe which factors specific to a given sex event increase the likelihood of condom use. This approach has been used extensively by researchers examining the link between sexual behaviors and alcohol use, and more recently in HIV prevention research among MSM.20–22 Studies that have focused on the circumstances surrounding sexual acts highlight the importance of contextual correlates. For example, partner characteristics, such as the duration of relationship with a sex partner, have been implicated as factors for unprotected anal sex.21 Finally, diaries have been shown to produce reliable estimates of behaviors, and are associated with high levels of completion and relatively low levels of missing data.23
The aim of this study was to explore affective, behavioral, partner, subjective, and situational factors related to HIV-negative MSM's condom use during both insertive and receptive anal intercourse over a recent period of time using diary data. This study extends current understanding of condom use by comparing how different sexual characteristics change the likelihood of condom use from one anal intercourse event to the other.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Participant Recruitment and Data Collection
Since 2009, the Men's National Sex Study has recruited participants from online Web sites that facilitate social and sexual interactions with other men to examine the sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors of MSM. In October 2010, an electronic recruitment e-mail was sent to registered US users of these sites with a description of the study and a link to the study Web site, where individuals could read a detailed description of the study and, if interested, proceed to the study consent form. Those who consented to participate in the study were directed to the study baseline questionnaire, which assessed sociodemographics, health, and sexual history, and took approximately 20 minutes. A total of 55,452 men visited the study Web site, and 32,831 (59.2%) consented to and subsequently participated in the baseline study.
Following the baseline questionnaire, participants were given the opportunity to enroll in a second phase of the study in which they were e-mailed instructions on how to complete 30-day sexual diaries. Participants were informed that they would receive a daily e-mail reminder that asked them to return to the study Web site each day and complete a short survey about their sexual behaviors during the course of 4 weeks. Embedded in the daily e-mail reminder was a Web link that directed participants to the daily survey, which took approximately 5 minutes to complete each day. Pertinent to the current project, these diaries measured daily occurrence of manual, oral, and insertive or receptive anal sex behaviors, the external characteristics associated with these events, as well as condom use during these events.
Of the 32,831 men completing the baseline survey instrument, 4439 (13.5%) subsequently enrolled and completed some portion of the 30 expected daily diaries (mean: 11 days, SD = 15 days; range: 2–30 days). From this group, we then selected a subset of men (n = 3877; 90.0%) who were HIV negative at the time of recruitment (Table 1). This HIV-negative subsample did not differ from the larger sample in terms of age (P = 0.131), ethnicity (P = 0.076), education (P = 0.207), health status (P = 0.152), sexual activity history (manual, oral, and anal sex; all P > 0.05), and recency of any STI (gonorrhea, herpes, human papilloma virus, or chlamydia; all P > 0.05). This subsample had similar levels of diary completion (mean: 13 days, SD = 10 days; range: 2–30 days). Approximately one quarter of the HIV-negative subset completed all 30 days; an additional 30% completed more than half of the expected days. Additionally, sensitivity analyses was conducted to assess the impact on model estimates with and without respondents who completed 20% or less of diary days, and found no differences (data not shown, available from first author). Therefore, the entire HIV-negative sub-sample was retained using statistical methods (described in more detail later in the text), which adjusted model standard errors for difference in diaries submitted across individuals. All study protocols were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at Indiana University, and additional details on the larger study are available elsewhere.24
Main Outcome Measures.
The 2 main outcome measures were condom use during anal intercourse with participant as receptive partner, and condom use during anal intercourse with participant as insertive partner (both: yes/no). Each outcome was examined in a separate model.
Affective and behavioral event characteristics included the following: negative mood (additive index; 6, 4-point Likert-type items; e.g., “not at all” to “a lot”; α = 0.93), within-day noncoital sexual repertoire (additive index: any kissing, solo- or partnered masturbation, oral-genital contact or oral-anal contact; all (yes/no); α = 0.94), and any condom nonuse during [insertive/receptive] anal intercourse in past week (yes/no). Partner characteristics were partner type (main/casual) and partner age difference (older, same age, younger). Situational characteristics included lubricant use (yes/no), partner used an enema before sex (yes/no), participant used an enema before sex (yes/no), sexual event location (other/participant or partner's residence), participant ejaculated (yes/no), partner ejaculated (yes/no), and duration of penetration (single, 5-point Likert-type item; e.g., “less than 2 minutes” to “longer than 30 minutes”). Subjective characteristics were as follows: participant erection difficulty (yes/no), perceived sexual pleasure (single, 5-point Likert-type item; “extremely pleasurable” to “not at all pleasurable”), perceived sexual arousal (single, 5-point Likert-type item; “extremely aroused” to “not at all aroused”), and satisfaction with partner (single, 5-point Likert-type item; “very satisfied” to “very dissatisfied”).
Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess a predictor variable's influence on the likelihood of condom use during each insertive or receptive anal intercourse event. A generalized estimating equation approach adjusted estimates for multiple sexual events reported within the same participant and differing number of diaries submitted across participants. All analyses were conducted using SUDAAN, Version 9.01 (Research Triangle Park, NC).25
Table 1 provides an overview of the descriptive characteristics of men in this study (n = 4170). The participants ranged in age from 18 years to 79 years (mean = 35.92, SD = 12.39); the majority were white (82.7%, n = 3206), self-identified as gay (82.0%, n = 3206) and more than half of men indicated that they were not currently in a romantic relationship (64.1%, n = 2484). Most men (71.0%, n = 2764) described their health as being very good or better, and nearly all men reported having engaged in a variety of sexual behaviors in the course of their lifetime, with the most common sexual behavior being solo masturbation (99.9%, n = 3875), followed by receiving oral-genital sex (98.3%, n = 3810) and performing oral-genital sex (98.1%, n = 3804).
Enrollment Characteristics and Condom Use
We examined the bivariate relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and overall prevalence of condom use during the diary study, using one-way analysis of variance and independent means t tests.
As shown in Table 2, age, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, STI history, solo or partnered masturbation, history of insertive anal intercourse, and history of giving oral-genital sex were not related to the total proportion of condom use for either insertive or receptive anal intercourse. Relationship status was significantly related to condom use (insertive anal intercourse: F = 7.709, P < 0.001; receptive anal intercourse: F = 8.145, P < 0.001), with men in longer relationships reporting significantly less overall condom use compared with those men not currently dating or those in more recently established relationships. Those in better general health (F = 2.28, P < 0.001) had marginally higher condom use during insertive anal intercourse, and those men with a recent diagnosis of syphilis (t[14.51] = 2.93, P < 0.01) had significantly higher condom use during insertive anal intercourse than those without syphilis (mean = 0.09, SD = 0.36). Condom use during receptive anal intercourse was less frequent among men who had ever received oral-genital sex (t = −10.88., P < 0.001) compared with men who had never received oral-genital sex (mean = 0.01, SD = 0.01), and was also less frequent among men with prior receptive anal intercourse experience (t = 32.98., P < 0.001) as compared with men who had not engaged in anal intercourse as the receptive partner before the study (mean = 1.00, SD = 0.01). Finally, significantly less condom use was noted during both insertive anal intercourse (t[206.24] = 3.50, P < 0.001) and receptive anal intercourse (t[116.19] = 2.77, P = 0.006) among men with a history of enema use compared with men who had never used enemas (insertive: mean = 0.45, SD = 0.48; receptive: mean = 0.37, SD = 0.47).
Event-Level Condom Use Distribution
HIV-negative MSM contributed 25,149 diary days, 2.9% (n = 730) of which were associated with the participant being the insertive partner during anal intercourse and 2.6% (n = 662) of which were associated with the participant being the receptive partner in anal intercourse. About one quarter (25.2%: 184/730) of insertive anal intercourse events were condom protected, whereas less than a fifth (18.8%: 125/662) of receptive anal intercourse events were condom protected.
Event-Level Condom Use
Table 3 presents the likelihood of condom use when men were either the insertive or receptive partner during anal intercourse. Condom use during insertive anal intercourse was more likely when the sexual event occurred with a casual partner (OR = 4.24) and higher insertive partner perceived sexual pleasure (OR = 1.84), but was less likely with a sexual partner using an enema before sex (OR = 0.98) and higher insertive partner sexual arousal (OR = 0.59). Condom nonuse was marginally associated with a wider within-day noncoital sexual repertoire (OR = 0.82). Using a condom during receptive anal intercourse was more likely when the sexual event occurred with a casual partner (OR = 6.59), but was less likely with condom nonuse during receptive anal intercourse in the past week (OR = 0.04) and higher receptive partner sexual pleasure (OR = 0.26).
Condom use is an effective means of preventing the transmission and acquisition of many sexually transmitted infections, including HIV; however, when warranted, their effectiveness decreases when not used consistently. These data extend current understandings of condom use among MSM during insertive and receptive anal intercourse, providing insight into how characteristics associated with a specific sexual event influence the likelihood that condoms are used. Our findings suggest that routine condom use is infrequent for both types of anal intercourse, but at rates comparable with national estimates of men's condom use during last vaginal sexual event.26
Patterns of condom use varied across sexual events, orchestrated in concert with different affective, behavioral, partner, situational, and subjective event characteristics. Men who indicated that anal intercourse (regardless of sexual position) occurred with a nonrelational partner were significantly more likely to report a condom being used. This finding highlights an increased use of condoms during sexual situations in which higher risk of STI acquisition may be present, demonstrating men's capacity to engage in protective risk reduction measures with new or more casual sexual partners. Although condom nonuse may in fact be appropriate for MSM who are engaging in anal intercourse with an HIV sero-concordant sexual partner who is STI negative, extrarelational sexual contacts can result in the introduction of HIV and other STI into an exclusive sexual relationship, demonstrating the importance of condom messaging that encourages open dialogue and communication between sexual partners, for perceived risk to be accurate. Moreover, positive ratings of sexual pleasure were associated with condom use among men who were insertive partners during anal intercourse, whereas condom nonuse was significantly related to higher ratings of pleasure among men who were receptive partners. This finding is consistent with recent nationally representative studies of condom use27 in which men who used a condom were more likely to report higher ratings of sexual pleasure. Although the relationship between condom use and pleasure has been previously linked with the reduction of anxiety associated with unintended pregnancy among men engaging in penile-vaginal intercourse, these data suggest the possibility that disease prevention may serve as a similar impetus for men engaging in same-sex intercourse. Alternatively, these differences may be a function of varying physiological responses to a condom's physical properties between different anatomical sites (i.e., on the penis vs. inside the rectum).
In support of other research,12 we did not find an association of negative mood with condom use, perhaps because negative effect may influence sexual risk as a moderator of other influences such as relationship conflict. Also parallel to prior work,18 regular patterns of condom nonuse during receptive anal intercourse strongly predicted current condom nonuse during receptive anal intercourse. Contrary to previous literature, however, we did not find an association of condom use with partner age difference, enema use before sex, lubricant use, sexual event location, erection difficulty, or sexual satisfaction. Commensurate with more recent qualitative work suggesting that sexual risk is often defined or negotiated within the dynamics of a specific sexual encounter,7,28,29 this may mean that factors traditionally labeled as “high risk” from the public health perspective (e.g., age discordance) may need to be reexamined within different contexts, particularly if those relationships change from one sexual event to another.
Finally, a strength of this study is the inclusion of data points designed to capture elements associated with a sexual encounter that are not traditionally measured (e.g., enema use). In this regard, condom use was less likely with a sexual partner using an enema before sex, and significantly less condom use was noted during both insertive anal intercourse and receptive anal intercourse among men with a history of enema use compared with men who had never used enemas. Although enema use is considered a mechanism for men engaging in anal intercourse to feel “clean,” this finding raises the possibility that for some men condoms may be used as a protective barrier from possible exposure to feces. Because of the biologic mechanisms of enema use in the rectum and increased risk for STI acquisition, further research examining the relationships between enemas and condom use is warranted.
The current work should be viewed within the context of its limitations. The sample was not representative of the general population, and participants were recruited through Web sites geared toward individuals who may be more sexually conscious; however, challenges exist with establishing nationally representative samples of MSM. Although this sample was entirely Internet-based, and as such, may not be generalizable to all MSM in the United States, this same limitation provides a strength in that previous studies have demonstrated the potential of online data collection to result in more accurate and honest responses from study participants.30
This study provides a longitudinal examination of condom use during anal intercourse among MSM in the United States. Findings from this study highlight that event-level relational and sexual-situational factors predict condom use differently during insertive and receptive anal sex among MSM. These data identify points on which clinicians and health educators can engage MSM in a dialogue about increasing condom use in situations where it is warranted.
1. Holmes KK, Levine R, Weaver M, et al.. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections. Bull World Health Organ Jun 2004; 82:454–461.
2. Warner L, Newman DR, Kamb ML, et al.. Problems with condom use among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics: Prevalence, predictors, and relation to incident gonorrhea and chlamydia. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167:341–349.
3. Crepaz N, Marks G, Liau A, et al.. Prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse among HIV-diagnosed MSM in the United States: A meta-analysis. AIDS 2009; 23:1617–1629.
4. Rhodes SD, Yee LJ, Hergenrather KC. A community-based rapid assessment of HIV behavioural risk disparities within a large sample of gay men in southeastern USA: A comparison of African American, Latino and white men. AIDS Care 2006; 18:1018–1024.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010; Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/msm/
6. Aguinaldo JP, Myers T. A discursive approach to disinhibition theory: The normalization of unsafe sex among gay men. Qual Health Res 2008; 18:167–181.
7. Braine N, van Sluytman L, Acker C, et al.. Sexual contexts and the process of risk reduction. Cult Health Sex 2011; 13:797–814.
8. Bauermeister JA, Carballo-Dieguez A, Ventuneac A, et al.. Assessing motivations to engage in intentional condomless anal intercourse in HIV risk contexts (“bareback sex”) among men who have sex with men. AIDS Educ Prev 2009; 21:156–168.
9. Mao L, Kippax SC, Holt M, et al.. Rates of condom and non-condom-based anal intercourse practices among homosexually active men in Australia: Deliberate HIV risk reduction? Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87:489–493.
10. Adams J, Neville S. Men who have sex with men account for nonuse of condoms. Qual Health Res 2009; 19:1669–1677.
11. Bradley MV, Remien RH, Dolezal C. Depression symptoms and sexual HIV risk behavior among serodiscordant couples. Psychosom Med 2008; 70:186–191.
12. Zea M, Reisen C, Poppen P, et al.. Unprotected anal intercourse among immigrant Latino MSM: The role of characteristics of the person and the sexual encounter. AIDS Behav 2009; 13:700–715.
13. Reisner SL, Mimiaga MJ, Skeer M, et al.. Beyond anal sex: Sexual practices associated with HIV risk reduction among men who have sex with men in Boston, Massachusetts. AIDS Patient Care STDs 2009; 23:545–550.
14. Kinsler JJ, Galea JT, Peinado J, et al.. Lubricant use among men who have sex with men reporting receptive anal intercourse in Peru: Implications for rectal microbicides as an HIV prevention strategy. Int J STD AIDS 2010; 21:567–572.
15. Joseph HA, Marks G, Belcher L, et al.. Older partner selection, sexual risk behaviour and unrecognised HIV infection among black and Latino men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87:442–447.
16. Carballo-Diéguez A, Bauermeister J, Ventuneac A, et al.. The use of rectal douches among HIV-uninfected and infected men who have unprotected receptive anal intercourse: Implications for rectal microbicides. AIDS Behav 2008; 12:860–866.
17. Colfax G, Vittinghoff E, Husnik MJ, et al.. Substance use and sexual risk: A participant- and episode-level analysis among a cohort of men who have sex with men. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159:1002–1012.
18. Schutz M, Godin G, Kok G, et al.. Determinants of condom use among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS 2011; 22:391–397.
19. Shiffman S, Stone AA. Introduction to the special section: Ecological momentary assessment in health psychology. Health Psychol 1998; 17:3–5.
20. Leigh BC. Alcohol consumption and sexual activity as reported with a diary technique. J Abnorm Psychol 1993; 102:490–493.
21. Chiasson MA, Hirshfield S, Remien RH, et al.. A comparison of on-line and off-line sexual risk in men who have sex with men: An event-based on-line survey. J Acquir Immun Defic Syndr 2007; 44:235–243.
22. Mustanski BS. Are sexual partners met online associated with HIV/STI risk behaviours? Retrospective and daily diary data in conflict. AIDS Care 2007; 19:822–827.
23. Verbrugge LM. Health Diaries. Med Care 1980; 18:73–95.
24. Rosenberger JG, Reece M, Schick V, et al.. Sexual behaviors and situational characteristics of most recent male partnered sexual event among gay and bisexually identified men in the United States. J Sex Med 2011; 8:3040–3050.
25. RTI International [computer program]. Version 9.0. Research Triangle Park, NC; 2005.
26. Sanders SA, Reece M, Herbenick D, et al.. Condom use during most recent vaginal intercourse event among a probability sample of adults in the United States. J Sex Med 2010; 7:362–373.
27. Reece M, Herbenick D, Schick V, et al.. Condom use rates in a national probability sample of males and females ages 14 to 94 in the United States. J Sex Med 2010; 7:266–276.
28. Brown G, Maycock B. Different spaces, same faces: Perth gay men's experiences of sexuality, risk and HIV. Cult Health Sex 2005; 7:59–72.
29. Hensel D, Newcamp JA, Miles J, et al.. A visual and narrative exploration of sexual space and sexual decision making among emerging adult women. Sex Res Soc Pol In press.
30. Ellen JM, Gurvey JE, Pasch L, et al.. A randomized comparison of A-CASI and phone interviews to assess STD/HIV-related risk behaviors in teens. J Adolesc Health 2002; 31:26–30.
© Copyright 2012 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association