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Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000223285.18331.4d
Article

Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Urban Shelter Clients

Grimley, Diane M. PhD*; Annang, Lucy PhD*; Lewis, Ivey MAEd*; Smith, Rev William*; Aban, Immaculada PhD†; Hooks, Terry BA*; Williams, Samantha PhD‡; Hook, Edward W. III MD§; Lawrence, Janet St PhD‡

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Author Information

From the Departments of *Health Behavior and †Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; the ‡Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease and Control, Atlanta, Georgia; and the §Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama

The authors thank the shelters, the CBOs, the state and local health departments, and the study participants.

This study was funded by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention through the Cooperative Agreement No. U65/CCU422269-02.

Correspondence: Diane M. Grimley, PhD, Department of Health Behavior, University of Alabama at Birmingham, RPHB 227, 1530 3rd Ave. S, Birmingham, AL 35294-0022. E-mail: dgrimley@uab.edu

Received for publication October 22, 2005, and accepted February 21, 2006.

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Abstract

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain common in the United States. One contributor to this persistent problem is pockets of infection among persons who may not have regular access to health care, a group that includes those who seek services at shelters.

Objective: The goals of the study were to: 1) determine the acceptability of STI testing among individuals seeking services at shelters in 2 midsized southeastern cities; 2) evaluate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV among these individuals; and 3) assess the proportion that subsequently learned their test results and received timely and appropriate treatment if warranted.

Study Design: Using a cross-sectional design, 430 individuals between the ages of 19 and 45 seen at 3 shelters in 2 cities were approached for participation. After completing a brief behavioral assessment, each participant provided a urine specimen for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) testing, blood for syphilis serologic testing, and an oral sample for HIV testing.

Results: The overall recruitment rate was 97% (96% in city A and 98% in city B). Seventy-eight percent were black with a mean age of 35.1 years. STI prevalence among those reporting sexual activity in the past 2 months was 12.9% in city A and 19.9% in city B (P = 0.04). The rate of CT in city B was significantly higher than city A (15.0% vs. 6.4%, P = 0.02); however, similar rates were found for GC (5.0% vs. 3.2%), primary and secondary syphilis (0.08% vs. 1.4%), and HIV (0.07% vs. 0.06%). Overall, 91.5% of the positive cases (89.0% in city A and 94.0% in city B) learned their test results and were successfully treated.

Conclusion: We found that shelter clients were receptive to STI testing, even for HIV, with most positive cases notified and successfully treated.

IN PARTS OF THE UNITED STATES where large-scale screening programs have been instituted and safer sex interventions provided, the prevalence of targeted sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has often substantially declined.1,2 Nonetheless, STIs remain relatively common throughout the nation. One potential contributor to this persistent problem is pockets of infection in persons who may not have regular access to health care such as economically disadvantaged individuals seeking services within local shelters. These community-based organizations assist the homeless—a group comprised of drug abusers, sex workers, those escaping domestic abuse, and the “working poor.” Research has shown that the homeless population is at increased risk of acquiring STIs and bloodborne viruses compared with the general population.3–5 Prevalence of HIV infection among the homeless in developed countries ranges from 2% to 9%—3 to 20 times greater than that of the general population.6 In addition, homeless populations include higher proportions of former prisoners,7 and both homeless and prison populations have high rates of communicable diseases as a result of poor health, illicit drug use, and unsafe sexual practices.8,9 As a group, homeless people are exposed to the highest levels of all social and environmental risk factors that can lead to contracting and transmitting STIs and, thus, pose serious public health challenges.6 Given that an estimated 100 million people worldwide are homeless,10 with 3.5 million homeless people in the United States,8 shelters may be desirable sites for outreach STI screening. However, little is known regarding how receptive shelter clients are to STI testing or the feasibility of using test results to deliver treatment to infected clients.

Thus, the overall goals of the study were 3-fold: 1) to determine the acceptability of STI testing among individuals seeking services at 3 shelters in 2 midsized southeastern cities; 2) to evaluate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV among these individuals; and 3) to assess the proportion that would subsequently learn their test results and receive timely and appropriate treatment if warranted.

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Methods

Sample and Procedure

The current study provides baseline data from an intervention being conducted by the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Syphilis Elimination Project in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The study's design and protocol were approved by the Institutional Review Boards at UAB and the CDC.

One of the initial goals of the project was to develop collaborative relationships with the state and local health departments and with local community-based organizations (CBOs) in the area of the shelters that had already developed critical relationships and trust with potential participants.11 Staff members of the shelters from which participants were recruited were also elicited as partners in this endeavor. These collaborators assisted the research team with the development of the behavioral questionnaire, were trained to conduct survey interviews, assisted project personnel with blood draws, and provided the medication to treat chlamydia and/or gonorrhea as well as the nurses to deliver oral treatment. The CBOs and each of the shelters were provided with a small monetary compensation for their time and assistance.

From April 2004 to June 2004, adults seeking services (food, clothes, housing, and so on) at the shelters were asked to participate in the study. Potential participants were approached by our research staff when they came into the shelters for lunch (11 am to 1 pm) or dinner (4 pm to 6 pm). Eligibility criteria included being between the ages of 19 and 45, willingness to provide biologic specimens, and provision of informed consent. After the informed consent process, each participant was escorted to a private room within the shelter where he or she completed a 5-minute, face-to-face interview regarding demographic information, sexual practices, and other risk factors. After the interview was completed, each participant was asked to provide a single urine specimen for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing, a blood specimen for syphilis serologic testing, and an oral fluid specimen for HIV testing. At the time of screening, participants were asked if they were experiencing any symptoms. Testing at all sites was free of charge, voluntary, and confidential; however, respondents were informed that positive test results would be reported to the State Department of Health. Project staff was trained in pre- and posttest counseling for STI screening. All participants were asked to return to the shelter where they were screened to learn their test results in 1 week when the results would be available. Study participants were compensated with a $12 food coupon redeemable at nearby restaurants for their time. No compensation was provided to participants for learning their test results.

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Laboratory Methods

Urine for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis was placed in GenProbe transport media and transported to the UAB's STD Research Laboratory for testing (GenProbe APTIMA Combo 2) according to the manufacturer's instructions.12 Blood specimens were transported to the Alabama State Department of Health Laboratory for syphilis testing using the Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory test and, if the test was reactive, confirmed using the Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay (Fujirebio Diagnostics, Malvern, PA). Oral fluid samples were sent directly to the manufacturer for HIV-1 testing (OraSure, Inc.).

Participants who tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhea were treated at the shelters in a private location by a project nurse in accordance with the CDC's STD Treatment Guidelines.13 Those with chlamydial infection received 1 g azithromycin (single oral dose), whereas those with gonorrhea received 400 mg ofloxacin (single oral dose). Study participants who tested positive for both gonorrhea and chlamydia were treated with regimens effective for each pathogen. All infected participants were instructed to notify their partners and to abstain from sexual intercourse until their sex partners have completed treatment. Those who tested positive for either syphilis or HIV were taken to the local health department by project staff for treatment, partner notification, and follow-up care.

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Data Management and Analysis

Questionnaire data were scanned directly into a database using TeleForm software. Both questionnaire data and laboratory results were transported into SPSS (version 12.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) statistical software package for analysis. Demographic and sexual behaviors were summarized, and gender and city differences were compared by chi-squared analyses for nominal variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Background variables that differed between the 2 cities were considered potential confounders in the outcome analysis and included in a logistic regression.

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Results

City A

Of 225 individuals approached in city A shelters, 216 (96%) agreed to participate. Approximately 61% of participants were male. Mean age of the sample was 36 years. Over two thirds (68.5%) of study participants self-identified as being black, 91% reported being heterosexual, and 65% (140 of 216) had engaged in sex within the last 2 months (Table 1).

Table 1
Table 1
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City B

Of 205 individuals approached for participation in city B, 200 (98%) agreed to participate. The characteristics of persons recruited at the shelter in city B were similar to those found in the 2 shelters in city A, nearly 100 miles away. Nearly two thirds (65.5%) of the sample was male. Mean age was 34 years. Most (88%) of the respondents in county B self-identified as being black, 91% were heterosexual, and 78% (156 of 200) had engaged in sex within the last 2 months (Table 1).

Other selected demographic and self-reported behavioral characteristics across the 2 communities are presented in Table 1. Statistically significant differences were found between the 2 cities for only 3 of the 16 background variables. Participants in city A reported higher rates of drug use before engaging in sex (P <0.001), whereas participants in city B were more often black (P <0.001) and were more likely to have engaged in sexual activity in the previous 2 months (P <0.05). These 3 variables were considered potential confounders and were included in a logistic regression in the outcome analyses.

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Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevalence Rates

Among those reporting sexual activity in the past 2 months (n = 296), the combined rate of STIs for both cities was 16.4%: 12.9% (n = 18) in city A and 19.9% (n = 31) in city B. The overall STI rate found for the 2 cities was significantly different (P = 0.04). When comparing individual STI rates across cities, city B had a significantly higher prevalence of chlamydial infections than city A (15.0% vs. 6.4%; P = 0.02; Table 2). There were no significant gender differences for any of the 4 infections detected within each city (P >0.05); however, more males in city B were infected with C. trachomatis (14.3% [14 of 98]) than males in city A (4.1% [3 of 74], P = 0.03). Results from the logistic regression indicated that after controlling for the 3 background variables that differed statistically across the 2 cities (race/ethnicity, sexual activity in the past 2 months, and drug use before engaging in sex), the variable “city” remained significant (odds ratio = 2.95, 95% confidence index = 1.40–6.30; P = 0.005). Among those who reported that they had not engaged in sex in the preceding 2 months (n = 114), STIs were found. The combined rate of STI among these study participants was 5.2%; 7.0% (5 of 71; 2 cases of N. gonorrhoeae and 3 cases of C. trachomatis) in city A and 2.3% (one of 43; one case of C. trachomatis) in city B (data not shown).

Table 2
Table 2
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At the time of screening, all study participants reported having no signs or symptoms of infection.

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Provision of Test Results and Treatment/Follow-Up Care

Overall, 97% of those screened in city A and 98% of individuals screened in city B learned their test results from the project staff (Table 2). Overall, 89% (16 of 18) of infected participants in city A were subsequently counseled and treated, whereas in city B, 94% (29 of 31) of infected persons were counseled and treated. Mean time from screening to treatment was 11.9 days in city A and 14.5 days in city B. Locating information for infected individuals not found by study staff was provided to the health department for follow-up.

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Discussion

This study validates the potential benefits of STI screening for clients of shelters in efforts to reach missed pockets of STIs within communities. This endeavor involved a partnership between university, community-based organizations and state and local health departments. Overall, we found a 16.4% STI prevalence rate (12.9% in city A and 19.9% in city B) among sexually active individuals seeking services at 3 shelters in Alabama. The 3 background variables that differed across the 2 cities (race/ethnicity, sexually active, drug use before sex) were not significant confounders in the outcome analyses; thus, these variables are not contributing to the higher rate of STIs in city B. In addition, we found a 5.2% rate of infection among participants who reported not having sex in the last 2 months.

It is worth emphasizing that all infected persons identified in this study were asymptomatic and would have been unlikely to seek screening or treatment if they had not been approached at the shelters by our outreach staff. Moreover, the number of males infected with chlamydia in city B was nearly 5 times the number of males in city A. This may reflect the fact that at the time this study was conducted, few screening efforts for asymptomatic men were being conducted by the local health department or through outreach activities in this city. Existing screening policies that do not include asymptomatic men are missing an opportunity to significantly reduce infection among this group. The evidence indicates that these policies should be revised.

Our chlamydia and/or gonorrhea prevalence rates are slightly higher than those found in homeless shelters in St. Louis (14.9% vs. 12.3%, respectively).14 Other researchers in Baltimore found an overall prevalence rate of 9.5% for gonorrhea and syphilis among homeless adults and, similar to our study, one third of the sample reported a history of STIs.15 Johnstone and colleagues found that 9% of homeless women attending a gynecologic care center in Chicago tested positive for gonorrhea, 26% were infected with trichomoniasis, and 5% had pelvic inflammatory disease.16 These findings support the effectiveness of screening efforts in this population.

Overall, 97.5% of participants screened learned their test results and 91.5% of the positive cases were treated. Individuals infected with chlamydia and/or gonorrhea who learned their test results were treated at the shelters. Others infected with syphilis and/or HIV who learned their test results were transported to the local health department by project staff for appropriate treatment. We were unable to locate 8.5% of infected participants (11.0% in city A; 6.0% in city B); however, all contact information was provided to the local health department for follow-up.

Admittedly, other researchers have fared slightly better with their outreach screening programs solely for C. trachomatis, with treatment rates as high as 97% in Denver17 and 100% in San Diego.18 Yet, differences in our study population such as the level of poverty and residential instability may have been factors that lowered follow-up rates. Our participants represent a highly transient, difficult-to-reach population. One study of homeless persons with serious mental illnesses did have nearly a 90% return rate, but only 38% of the target population agreed to be tested.19

Irrespective of the current study's limitations, the results clearly attest to the feasibility of outreach testing and demonstrate that the yield is significant in terms of identifying previously untreated STIs in the community. The large number of individuals who were receptive to screening and voluntarily returned to the shelters to learn their test results strongly support the continuation of such efforts to deplete the reservoir of pathogens in this population. Future research is needed to evaluate whether such outreach efforts can be sustained in a cost-effective way.

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References

1. Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, September 2002; 1–4. Available at: www.cdc.gov/stds/stats.

2. Primary and secondary syphilis—Unites States, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001; 50:113–117.

3. Noell J, Rhohde P, Ochs L, et al. Incidence and prevalence of chlamydia, herpes, and viral hepatitis in a homeless adolescent population. Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28:4–10.

4. Ochnio JJ, Patrick D, Ho M, Talling DN, Dobson SR. Past infection with hepatitis A virus among Vancouver street youth, injection drug users and men who have sex with men: Implications for vaccination programs. CMAJ 2001; 165:293–297.

5. Hwang LY, Ross MW, Zack C, Bull L, Rickman K, Holleman M. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated risk factors among populations of drug users. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31:920–926.

6. Gelberg L, Arangua L. Homeless people. In: Levy BS, Sidel VW, eds. Social Injustice. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc, 2006:178.

7. Burt M, Aran L, Douglas T, Valente J, Lee E, Iwen B. Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve: Findings From the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients, Technical Report. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 1999.

8. Hammett TM, Gaither JL, Crawford C. Reaching seriously at-risk populations: Health interventions in criminal justice settings. Health Educ Behav 1998; 25:99–120.

9. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat). Strategies to combat homelessness. HS/599/00 E. Available at: http://www.unhabitat.org/en/uploadcontent/publications/HS-599.pdf. Accessed January 26, 2005.

10. Burt MR, Aron LY. Helping America's Homeless. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2001.

11. Thomas JC, Eng E, Earp JA, Ellis H. Trust and collaboration in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Public Health Rep 2001; 116:540–547.

12. Gaydos CA, Quinn TC, Willis D, et al. Performance of the APTIMA Combo 2 assay detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female urine and endocervical swab specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41:304–309.

13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000 Guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002; 51:1–80.

14. Jones CA, Knaup RC, Haynes M, Stoner BP. Urine screening for gonococcal and chlamydia infection at community-based organizations in a high-morbidity area. Sex Transm Dis 2000; 27:146–151.

15. Breakey WR, Fischer PJ, Kramer M, et al. Health problems of homeless men and women in Baltimore. JAMA 1989; 262:1352–1357.

16. Johnstone H, Tornabene M, Marcinack J. Incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and Pap smear results in female homeless clients from the Chicago Health Outreach Project. Health Care Women Int 1993; 14:293–299.

17. Rietmeijer CA, Yamaguchi KJ, Ortiz GG, et al. Feasibility and yield of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction among high-risk male youth in field-based and other non-clinic settings. Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24:429–435.

18. Gunn RA, Podschun GC, Fitzgerald S, et al. Screening high-risk adolescent males for Chlamydia trachomatis infection: Obtaining urine specimens in the field. Sex Transm Dis 1998; 25:49–54.

19. Desai MM, Rosenheck RA. HIV testing and receipt of test results among homeless persons with serious mental illness. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161:2287–2294.

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