Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
Comparison of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence by Reported Condom Use: Errors Among Consistent Condom Users Seen at an Urban Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic
Shlay, Judith C. MD, MSPH*†‡; McClung, Melissa W. MSPH*; Patnaik, Jennifer L. MHS‖; Douglas, John M. Jr. MD*§
From the Departments of * Public Health and † Community Health Services, Denver Health and Hospital Authority; ‡ Family Medicine and § Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado; and the ‖Tri-County Health Department, Greenwood Village, Colorado
Received for publication December 1, 2003, and accepted April 19, 2004.
Correspondence: Judith C. Shlay, MD, MSPH, Denver Public Health, 605 Bannock St., Denver, CO 80204-4507. E-mail: jshlay@DHHA.org
The authors acknowledge all of the STD clinicians who collected the information for this study.
Present affiliation for J.M.D. is Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia.
Background: The protective effect of condom use is controversial as a result of limited data.
Goal: The goal of this study was to assess the association between condom use errors in consistent condom users and the prevalence of various sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Study: We conducted a cross-sectional study of visits to an urban STD clinic between January 2001 and January 2003, by women, men who have sex with women (MSW), and men who have sex with men (MSM) by consistent condom users with or without a condom use error.
Methods: Prevalence rates were calculated for gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), and pelvic inflammatory disease. Rates were stratified by reported errors in condom use over the past 4 months for consistent users with adjusted odds ratios calculated by logistic regression.
Results: Among 1973 consistent condom users with error information available, any condom use error was reported more commonly among women (57%) than MSW (48%), or MSM (P <0.001 for each comparison), with breakage being the most frequently reported error. Among MSW, having a condom use error was associated with gonorrhea (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.48–12.35), chlamydia (AOR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.80–5.65), and NGU (AOR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.45–3.01), whereas, for women and MSM, no associations were seen for any STD.
Conclusions: Condom use errors were common among subjects reporting consistent condom use and for MSW, condom error was associated with a significant increased risk of STD. These data support the premise that correctness of condom use is an important methodologic issue in studies assessing condom effectiveness.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDs) are an important and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Reliable ways to avoid transmission of STD include abstaining from sexual intercourse or being in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner. For those choosing to be sexually active in partnerships in which sexual exposure is possible, condoms have long been considered to be one of the most effective practical means of reducing the risk of infection.1–3 However, a recent review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STDs concluded that there was insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of condoms for a variety of STDs.4 An important feature of this report was its emphasis on the significance of methodologic issues in interpreting studies on condom effectiveness, including the importance of infection status of partners as well as consistency and correctness of use.
In a recent 12-year retrospective study of the benefit of condoms in preventing a variety of STDs in men and women, we found that although there was limited evidence of protection among those reporting condom use compared with nonusers, persons choosing to use condoms reported more sexual risk,5 supporting the observation that condom use is a marker for sexual partnerships with greater risks of STD transmission.6 Furthermore, our study found that among condom users, after adjusting for sexual risk, consistent users had lower rates of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas (women), and genital herpes (men) than inconsistent users. Although the size of this study allowed us to assess the impact of consistently reported use on a variety of specific STDs in both men and women, its retrospective nature did not permit consideration of correctness of use, a limitation of many other studies.4,7,8 Thus, to assess the impact of correct use on the association of consistent condom use with specific STDs, we modified the routine data collection procedures in our STD clinic to determine the prevalence of condom errors among consistent condom users. This analysis describes the results of the first 2 years of this modified data collection approach.
The Denver Metro Health Clinic (DMHC), operated by the Denver Public Health Department, is a free and confidential facility offering comprehensive services for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of STDs. Services have historically been provided to all interested persons, regardless of income or residency, with approximately 80 patients seen daily. The analysis was based on a computerized medical record review of visits by women, men who have sex with women (MSW), and men who have sex with men (MSM) who were seen for a new problem at the DMHC between January 2001 and January 2003. Only patients who reported vaginal or anal intercourse in the past 4 months were included in the analysis. The Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board reviewed and approved this study. Abstracted data included patient demographics, information on lifetime number of sexual partners, STD history, number and type of sexual partners in the past 4 months, and use of condoms and other contraceptives (for women) in the past 4 months.
Condom use over the past 4 months was determined during the routine clinical interview before an STD diagnosis and was classified as 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%. Inconsistent users were those persons who reported using condoms between 25% to 75% of the time. Those patients reporting 100% condom use (consistent users) were further surveyed using a structured series of questions as to whether any error had occurred with the use of condoms during intercourse. Errors specifically elicited included breakage, leakage, slippage, condom turned inside out, reuse of a condom, initiation of sex before using a condom, or removal of the condom before finishing sex. The type and frequency of each error and the number of acts of anal or vaginal intercourse over the prior 4 months were recorded.
Sexually Transmitted Disease Diagnoses
Prevalence rates were calculated for 3 microbiologically confirmed STDs and 2 syndromic STDs. Microbiologically confirmed STDs included Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which was diagnosed by culture of cervical and urethral swabs; Chlamydia trachomatis, which was diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification tests (polymerase chain reaction or strand displacement assay) of cervical swabs in women and urine in men; and Trichomonas vaginalis, which was diagnosed by detection of motile trichomonads on microscopic examination of vaginal fluid in women; syndromic STDs included nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), which was diagnosed in men by both the presence of urethral discharge and by demonstrating on a urethral Gram stain ≥4 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-powered field, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which was diagnosed in women based on a history of abdominal pain or dyspareunia in combination with physical findings of cervical motion, uterine, or adnexal tenderness; enlargement or induration of fallopian tubes; pelvic mass; or direct or rebound abdominal tenderness.
The study outcome of condom error was based on the occurrence of any reported condom use error during the past 4 months. The condom error rate was determined separately for females, MSW, and MSM by calculating the total number of errors and then dividing this number by the total number of acts of anal or vaginal intercourse. The condom use error rate was calculated as previously described by Warner et al.9 Because more than 1 error could have occurred per sex act, we conservatively assumed that the total number of sex acts with errors was equal to the number with the most frequently described error type (eg, a survey mentioning 3 breakage events and 2 slippage events was considered to have had 3 errors).
Associations between demographic and clinical variables and STD rates by level of condom use (none, inconsistent, and consistent) and any condom use error were assessed separately by chi-squared analysis for females, MSW, and MSM. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine variables associated with any condom use error as well as to adjust for the associations of condom use errors with each of the STDs. Variables included in the modeling were those found to be significant by bivariate analysis at P values ≤0.20 or ones that were considered clinically relevant. Backward elimination was used for logistic regression modeling. SAS version 8.1 was used for all data analysis (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).
From January 2001 through January 2003, a total of 26,291 patients were seen at the DMHC, 36.0% women, 54.7% MSW, and 9.3% MSM. Of these, 9941 (37.8%) reported no condom use, 12,962 (49.3%) reported inconsistent use, and 3388 (12.9%) reported 100% use. Of the 3388 persons with consistent use, clinicians completed the additional condom error survey for 1973 (58.2%). MSM were more likely than either MSW or women to report consistent condom use (25.6% vs. 11.8% vs. 11.2%, P <0.01). No significant demographic or behavioral differences were seen between all consistent condom users and those persons who completed the condom error survey (data not shown).
The demographic and clinical characteristics of the 1973 patients who completed the condom error questionnaire stratified by gender and sexual orientation are outlined in Table 1. Median age was 22.6 years for women, 26.6 years for MSW, and 33.5 years for MSM. The majority of the women and MSW were nonwhite, whereas the majority of MSM were white. The median number of lifetime sex partners was 7 for women, 13 for MSW, and 30 for MSM, and approximately half of all patients had a prior history of an STD. Most patients had recently had a new sex partner, and 42.0% of women, 48.5% of MSW, and 78.9% of MSM reported having multiple sex partners within the past 4 months. The median number of sex acts (ie, vaginal or anal) within the past 4 months was 8 for women, 7 for MSW, and 5 for MSM. Anal sex was reported by 6.1% of women and 4.9% of MSW. The proportion of MSM who reported receiving oral sex was higher than MSW (92.1% vs. 44.7%, P <0.0001).
The occurrence of any condom use error was reported by significantly more women (57%) than MSW (48%) or MSM (33%) (P <0.0001, women vs. MSW, women vs. MSM) (Table 2). In addition, multiple types of errors were reported more frequently by women (16.8%) than by MSW (13.1%) or MSM (10.3%) (P <0.05 for each comparison). The most frequently reported error for all groups was condom breakage, followed by condom slippage or initiation of sex before use of a condom. The overall error rate per reported sex act was 6.4% and was lower for women (5.5%) than MSW (6.9%) or MSM (7.5%) (P <0.0001 for each comparison) (Table 2). MSW <20 years old had a higher condom error rate than older MSW, whereas women and MSM had no significant differences in error rate by age. Error rates varied by ethnicity, with whites having a significantly lower error rate than blacks or Hispanics among women and MSW, whereas blacks had the highest error rate among MSM. For all groups, the error rate decreased significantly with increasing sexual frequency, with the lowest error rates occurring among those with ≥15 sex acts within a 4-month timeframe.
The association of demographic and behavioral characteristics with any condom use error was assessed by logistic regression (Table 3). Among women, condom use error was associated with black race/ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22–2.79) and with having ≥15 sexual acts over the prior 4 months (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.42). Among MSW, condom use error was associated with age <20 years (AOR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.26–3.04), black race/ethnicity (2.36; 95% CI, 1.69–3.30), recently having had either a new (AOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07–2.07) or multiple sexual partners (AOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.25–2.30), >10 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.19–2.17), and reporting ≥15 sexual acts over the prior 4 months (AOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.43–2.83). Finally, among MSM, condom use error was only associated with Hispanic race/ethnicity (AOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.07–3.20) and with having ≥15 sexual acts over the prior 4 months (AOR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.49–4.81).
Table 4 compares STD prevalence rates by various levels of condom use, including both the total population (n = 26,291) stratified by no condom use, inconsistent use, and consistent use, as well as the consistent users who completed the condom error questions (n = 1973). Among the total population, rates of STD were higher among inconsistent users than nonusers for gonorrhea and chlamydia among women; gonorrhea, chlamydia, and NGU among MSW; and gonorrhea and NGU among MSM (P <0.05 for all comparisons). However, STD rates were significantly lower among consistent than inconsistent users for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and PID among women; for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and NGU among MSW; and for gonorrhea among MSM (P <0.05 for all comparisons). Among consistent users who completed the condom error questions, rates of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and NGU were significantly higher among those with errors than those without for MSW. Similar trends toward higher rates in those with errors than those without were noted for each STD for women, although differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, among MSM, there was no difference between consistent users with or without errors for any STD.
To control for the effect of potentially confounding demographic and sexual behavior variables, the association of condom error with the odds of different STD was assessed by logistic regression (Table 5). For MSW, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, condom use error continued to be associated with gonorrhea (AOR, 5.53; 95% CI, 2.48–12.35), chlamydia (AOR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.80–5.65), and nongonococcal urethritis (AOR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.45–3.01). Alternatively, for women and MSM, condom error was not significantly associated with any STD outcome.
Figure 1compares the proportion with any STD among the 3 categories of condom users: inconsistent use (as measured in the total population) and consistent users with or without errors (as measured in those who completed the condom error survey). Although STD rates tended to decline with increasing consistency and correctness of use in all groups, the nature of the declining trend varied for women, MSW, and MSM. Among women, rates of STD were significantly lower among consistent users with errors (16.6%) than inconsistent users (23.9%; P <0.01), but the further decrease among consistent users without errors (14.0%) was not significant. In contrast, among MSW, rates of STDs were essentially the same in inconsistent users (39.9%) and consistent users with errors (39.6%), and declined substantially only among consistent users without errors (15.0%; P <0.0001). Finally, among MSM, compared with STD rates among inconsistent users (34.8%), rates were only slightly lower among consistent users with errors (30.6%) and consistent users without errors (29.4%).
By expanding routinely collected STD clinic data to include condom use errors as well as frequency of use, our study provided an opportunity to determine the impact of incorrect use among patients reporting complete consistency of use. The findings of the current study replicate those of our recent retrospective study on women and MSW, with lower rates of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis (in women) in consistent than inconsistent condoms users, and also document similar trends for NGU in MSW, PID in women, and gonorrhea in MSM. Our study extends these findings by demonstrating trends toward lower rates of STD with increasing consistency and correctness of condom use, with significantly lower rates of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and NGU in MSW who consistently use condoms without errors.
The greater difference in STD rates between consistent condom users with and without errors for MSW than women or MSM is of interest. It could be more difficult for women than MSW to appreciate that an error such as breakage, slippage, or leakage has occurred. Consistent with this premise, a recent study of college students reported that over 30% of men had failed to disclose condom breakage to their female partners, comprising 13% of condom breakage episodes in which they were involved.10 Such an issue could lead to differential classification bias among women and MSW and thus obscure common trends. This possibility is supported by the lower rate reported by women than MSW in our study. Alternatively, symptomatic persons presenting to our STD clinic suspecting they have been exposed to an STD could prefer to offer a history of condom errors “as an excuse” rather than acknowledge inconsistent or nonuse. If such a phenomenon were common among MSW, it could accentuate the difference in STD rates between those who report consistent use with and without errors. Finally, among MSM, both of the above explanations could obscure the potential differences in STD rates among different levels of consistency and correctness of condom use. In addition, high rates of unprotected oral sex, which has been associated with both urethral gonorrhea and NGU11,12 and which was not considered in our study, could contribute to high prevalence of urethral infection and thus obscure differences in STD rates by condom use. The substantially higher proportion of MSM than MSW engaging in this practice in our study support the likelihood of this explanation.
Our overall error rate of 6.4% was comparable to other studies,9,13–18 with errors commonly reported by over half of the women and MSW and almost one third of MSM. As seen in other studies, breakage and slippage were the most common errors reported,9,18–21 with the initiation of sex before the condom was put on also being relatively common. Although our study did not assess a number of factors that have been associated with condom error (eg, education level, marital status, prior experience with condoms, use of vaginal spermicides, past errors, alcohol/drug use, allergic reactions),9,13,16,18,22 we did identify other characteristics that were predictive of a condom use error. We found that for both women and MSW, blacks were more likely to experience a condom use error, whereas among MSM, condom use errors were more common among Hispanics, an association that has been reported previously.16,17,20 In addition, for MSW, those clients that were younger and who reported high-risk sexual activity (ie, new partner, multiple partners, >10 lifetime sex partners) were also more likely to report a condom use error. Finally, we found an association of any condom use error with an increased frequency of sexual activity in all groups. That this association is simply the result of the greater number of chances with an increased frequency of any error with intercourse is supported by the decline in the rate of errors in those with greater sexual frequency. Although our assessment of factors associated with condom use errors was limited, identifying characteristics that are readily available during a clinical encounter and which can identify subgroups at increased risk for errors could support a counseling approach that can focus on prevention of errors.13,23
Our investigation had several potential limitations. First, although patients’ responses have been reported to be more accurate when the recall is of a moderate duration (ie, 3–6 months),24 because information was obtained through self-report, there was the potential for recall bias or respondents providing socially desirable responses (eg, consistent condom use, no condom use errors), as noted here. Second, because clinicians failed to survey all consistent condom users about condom use errors, there is the potential that these results might not be representative of all consistent condom users. However, no significant demographic or behavioral differences were seen between all consistent users and those who completed the error questions. Finally, because this study was conducted as part of a routine clinical assessment in an STD clinic, limited information was available on risk behaviors that have been found to be associated with condom use errors such as partner types and length of relationship(s).
In summary, among those persons reporting consistent condom use that were surveyed in this STD clinic population, condom use errors were common. Although consistent condom use significantly reduces STD in both men and women,5 incorrect condom use undermines this benefit, significantly so among MSW. These data support the premise that correctness of condom use is an important methodologic issue in studies assessing condom effectiveness. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of promoting careful attention to correct as well as consistent use of condoms among sexually active persons who want to reduce their risk of STDs.
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update. Barrier protection against HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1993; 42:589–591.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Condoms for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1988; 37:133–137.
3. Stone KM, Timyan J, Thomas EL. Barrier methods for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease. In: Holmes K, Sparling P, Mardh P, et al., eds. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999:1307–1322.
4. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Workshop Summary: Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention; Herdon, Virginia; July 20, 2001.
5. Shlay JC, McClung MW, Patnaik JL, Douglas JM. Comparison of STD prevalence by reported level of condom use among patients attending an urban STD clinic. Sex Transm Dis 2004; 31:154–160.
6. Turner CF, Miller HG. Zenilman’s anomaly reconsidered: Fallible reports, ceteris paribus, and other hypotheses. Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24:522–527.
7. Fishbein M, Jarvis B. Failure to find behavioral surrogate for HIV incidence—What does it really mean? Sex Transm Dis 2000; 27:452–455.
8. Darrow WW. Condom use and use-effectiveness in high-risk populations. Sex Transm Dis 1989; 16:157–160.
9. Warner L, Clay-Warner J, Boles J, Williamson J. Assessing condom use practices implications for evaluating method and user effectiveness. Sex Transm Dis 1998; 25:273–277.
10. Warner L, Boles J, Goldsmith J, Hatcher R. Disclosure of condom breakage to sexual partners. JAMA 1997; 278:291–292.
11. Lafferty W, Hughes JP, Handesfield HH. Sexually transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men: Acquisition of gonorrhea and nongonococcal urethritis by fellatio and implications for STD/HIV prevention. Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24:272–278.
12. Janier M, Lassau F, Casin I, Morel P. Pharyngeal gonorrhoea: The forgotten reservoir. Sex Transm Infect 2003; 79:345.
13. Steiner M, Piedrahita C, Glover L, Joanis C. Can condom users likely to experience condom failure be identified? Fam Plann Perspect 1993; 25:220-223.
14. Richters J, Donovan B, Gerofi J. How often do condoms break or slip off in use? Int J STD AIDS 1993; 4:90–93.
15. Liskin L, Warton C, Blackburn R. Condoms now more than ever. Population Reports 1990; Series H, No. 8.
16. Stone E, Heagerty P, Vittinghoff E, et al. Correlates of condom failure in a sexually active cohort of men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999; 20:495–501.
17. Grady W, Tanfer K. Condom breakage and slippage among men in the United States. Fam Plann Perspect 1994; 26:107–112.
18. Spruyt A, Steiner MJ, Joanis C, et al. Identifying condom users at risk for breakage and slippage: Findings from three international sites. Am J Public Health 1998; 88:239–244.
19. Macaluso M. Prospective study of barrier contraception for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Transm Dis 1999; 26:127–136.
20. Messiah A, Dart T, Spencer BE, Warszawski J. Condom breakage and slippage during heterosexual intercourse: A French national survey. Am J Public Health 1997; 87:421–424.
21. Sparrow M, Lavill K. Breakage and slippage of condoms in family planning clients. Contraception 1994; 50:117–129.
22. Macaluso M, Kelaghan J, Artz L, et al. Mechanical failure of the latex condom in a cohort of women at high STD risk. Sex Transm Dis 1999; 26:450–458.
23. Warner L, Hatcher RA. Male condoms. In: Hatcher R, Trussell J, Stewart F, et al., eds. Contraceptive Technology, 17th ed. New York: Ardent Media, 1998: 325–355.
24. Pequegnat W, Fishbein M, Celentano D, et al. NIMH/APPC workgroup on behavioral and biological outcomes in HIV/STD prevention studies: a position statement. Sex Transm Dis 2000; 27:127–132.
This article has been cited 18 time(s).
AIDS and BehaviorCorrelates of Any Condom Use Among Russian Narcology Patients Reporting Recent Unprotected SexAIDS and Behavior
Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent GynecologyResearch on Adolescents and Microbicides: A ReviewJournal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsPenile dimensions and men's perceptions of condom fit and feelSexually Transmitted Infections
Archives of Internal Medicine
A Pooled Analysis of the Effect of Condoms in Preventing HSV-2 Acquisition
Archives of Internal Medicine, 169():
Gynecologic and Obstetric InvestigationContraception and Induced Abortions for Women of Reproductive Age Married in Recent Years in Rural Areas of Shandong, ChinaGynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Sexual HealthProblems with condoms may be reduced for men taking ample time to apply themSexual Health
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsA comparison of four condom-use measures in predicting pregnancy, cervical STI and HIV incidence among Zimbabwean womenSexually Transmitted Infections
American Journal of EpidemiologyProblems with condom use among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics: Prevalence, predictors, and relation to incident gonorrhea and chlamydiaAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Journal of the National Medical Association
Preventing HIV infection among young immigrant Latino men: Results from focus groups using community-based participatory research
Journal of the National Medical Association, 98(4):
Sexual HealthPending research issues in male condom use promotionSexual Health
International Journal of Std & AIDSSlips, breaks and 'falls': condom errors and problems reported by men attending an STD clinicInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
American Journal of Mens HealthCorrelates of Putting Condoms On After Sex Has Begun and of Removing Them Before Sex Ends: A Study of Men Attending an Urban Public STD ClinicAmerican Journal of Mens Health
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsMen with broken condoms: who and why?Sexually Transmitted Infections
American Journal of Public HealthLearning From Successful Interventions: A Culturally Congruent HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American Men Who Have Sex With Men and WomenAmerican Journal of Public Health
AIDS and BehaviorA theory-based approach to understanding condom errors and problems reported by men attending an STI clinicAIDS and Behavior
© Copyright 2004 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association