Sexually Transmitted Diseases:
Alcohol and Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis of Event-Level Studies
LEIGH, BARBARA C. PhD
From the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
A meta-analysis of sexual encounters revealed that alcohol use was related to nonuse of condoms at first intercourse but not in other sexual encounters.
Supported by grant K02 AA0183 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).
Reprint requests: Barbara C. Leigh, PhD, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, University of Washington, 1107 NE 45th Street, Suite 120, Seattle, WA 98105. E-mail: email@example.com
Received for publication August 14, 2001,
revised November 21, 2001, and accepted November 26, 2001.
Background: Although it is often assumed that drinking alcohol interferes with condom use, studies on this topic have used several different methods and have yielded inconsistent findings. By examining drinking and condom use in specific sexual encounters, the role of alcohol in influencing unprotected intercourse is targeted.
Goal: The goal of the study was to assess the relationship of alcohol use and condom use in discrete sexual encounters using meta-analysis.
Study Design: Studies in the literature were identified by computerized searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO and hand searches of reference lists. Summary odds ratios were calculated for all analyses and for subgroups formed according to type of sexual encounter (first, most recent, most recent with a new sexual partner).
Results: The association of alcohol use and condom use varied by type of sexual encounter: drinking at first intercourse was associated with decreased condom use (odds ratio [OR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44–0.66), but drinking was unrelated to condom use in recent sexual encounters (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.89–1.21) and in recent encounters with new partners (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.92–1.32).
Conclusion: Drinking is not necessarily linked to unprotected intercourse; the relationship between alcohol use and unprotected sex depends on context and sexual experience of the partners.
IN THE MIDST OF epidemics of HIV and STDs, research on potentially modifiable factors that may influence sexual risk behavior remains vital. One such factor may be drinking alcohol with sex. 1,2 Because alcohol is thought to interfere with judgment and decision-making, some suggest that its use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability that risky behaviors will occur. 3,4
Recent years have seen an explosion of research on this topic, but several literature reviews have noted the inconsistency of study findings. 2,5–9 Individual studies vary considerably in the method used to assess the alcohol/risky sex association. In many studies, general drinking habits (for example, quantity or frequency of use) are simply correlated with general measures of risky sexual behavior (for example, frequency of unprotected intercourse). A more targeted approach is an event-level method, in which respondents are asked about drinking and unprotected sex in a specific sexual encounter. The chief advantage of such a method, compared with simply correlating general measures of drinking habits and sexual risk, is that it ensures that drinking and unprotected sex occurred on the same occasion, thus strengthening (but not guaranteeing) causal inferences.
Results of these event-level studies are also inconsistent. 2 Meta-analysis provides a way to review and integrate these studies using quantitative methods rather than judgment alone 10 and to identify factors that contribute to variation among the studies, thereby enhancing understanding of the dynamics of the relationship of alcohol use to unprotected sex. This article describes a meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between alcohol use and condom use in discrete sexual encounters. For nonexperimental studies such as these, the primary value of meta-analysis lies in identifying and exploring reasons for heterogeneity in results, rather than calculating a single estimate of effect size. 11,12 To that end, several factors that may contribute to heterogeneity are examined, including age, gender, and type of sexual encounter.
To identify studies for inclusion in the analysis, first, personal files were searched and colleagues in the field were contacted. Second, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for publications from the period 1966 to 2000, using combinations of keywords and phrases, including alcohol, condom, intercourse, and sexual encounter. Finally, bibliographies of reviews and empirical articles were examined.
Studies were included if (1) respondents were interviewed about a specific sexual encounter, were asked whether a condom was used in that encounter, and were asked whether alcohol was used before or during the encounter; (2) enough information was given to calculate odds ratios and standard errors; and (3) they were published in English.
The outcome of interest was whether a condom was used in the sexual encounter. Odds ratios (representing the association of drinking and condom use in the sexual encounter) and standard errors were either extracted from the published results or calculated from raw data given in the published paper. If a study reported results separately for men and women, separate odds ratios were calculated. Odds ratios were summarized across studies using inverse-variance weighting, as implemented in the Meta routine in Stata. 13,14 Q-tests for heterogeneity of individual estimates were also performed. 15 Results of fixed-effects analyses are reported here 12; results of random-effects models were not substantially different.
Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria (Table 1 shows the study characteristics). Nine were conducted in the United States, 16–24 two in Norway, 25,26 one in Canada, 27 and one in France. 28 Investigators in 4 of the 13 studies interviewed adolescents, 18,19,25,26 those in 8 studies interviewed adults (aged 18 years and older), 16,17,20,21,23,24,27,28 and those in 1 study interviewed both adolescents and adults. 22 In 2 studies, respondents reported on their first sexual en-counter 22,25; in 6, on their most recent sexual en-counter 16–18,23,27,28; and in 2, on their most recent sexual encounter with a new sexual partner. 20,21 In each of three studies, respondents reported on two different events: first sexual encounter and first encounter with the most recent partner, 19 most recent sexual encounter and most recent casual sexual encounter, 26 and most recent sexual encounter and most recent sexual encounter with a new sexual partner. 24
An additional five studies assessed participants’ use of any substances with sex, including alcohol or other drugs. 23,29–32 All of these studies assessed substance use and condom use at the most recent sexual encounter, two among adolescents 31,32 and three among adults. 23,29,30 Because of the different pharmacological effects of different kinds of drugs, these studies are analyzed separately from the alcohol-only studies.
Fifteen studies did not meet the inclusion criteria. Ten studies did not provide sufficient information to calculate odds ratios and/or standard errors 33–42; two did not use a binary outcome variable, making calculation of odds ratios impossible 43,44; and three reported the percentage of respondents who used alcohol and the percentage who used condoms but did not report how these factors were related. 45–47 Only one of these studies 44 reported that drinking was related to decreased condom use.
Thirteen studies that analyzed more than one instance of an event were also excluded from the analysis, including studies that analyzed a drinking-sexual encounter and a nondrinking-sexual encounter by the same person, 48–50 a protected and an unprotected sexual encounter by the same person, 51–54 more than one event per person using an analysis of pooled events, 55–57 or data from retrospective or prospective diaries of drinking and sexual behavior. 58–60 Because these studies used several different analytical methods—paired t tests, McNemar tests for matched pairs, logistic regression or chi-square analyses of pooled events, and generalized estimating equations—summarizing them is difficult, given the limitations of using standardized effect sizes. 61 Five of these studies assessed participants’ use of any substances, including alcohol or drugs, 52–54,57,59 and the remainder assessed alcohol only. Only two of these studies 51,55 reported any significant association of alcohol and condom use, and that was only in certain subgroups.
Studies of Alcohol and Condom Use
Results of the 26 analyses extracted from the individual studies of alcohol use and condom use showed that people who used alcohol in conjunction with sex were slightly less likely to use condoms; however, the Q test indicated significant heterogeneity among the odds ratios (Table 2). To explore this variability, different subgroups of studies were tested (Table 2 and Figure 1). On the basis of suggestions that the relationship of alcohol use to sexual risk-taking may differ for adolescents and adults, 62 for first sexual encounters versus recent encounters, 8 and for encounters with new partners versus established partners, 59 separate analyses were undertaken for subgroups, characterized by event type (first intercourse, most recent sexual encounter, and most recent sexual encounter with new partner) and age (adolescent and adult). People who drank in conjunction with their first sexual encounter were less likely to use condoms than those who did not drink (odds ratio [OR], 0.54), but drinking was unrelated to condom use in recent sexual encounters (OR, 1.04) and in recent encounters with new partners (OR, 1.1). Although drinking was related to nonuse of condoms among adolescents in general (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61–0.83), this finding was due almost entirely to the overrepresentation of adolescents in studies of first intercourse; for recent encounters among adolescents, drinking was unrelated to condom use (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.75–1.14).
Meta-regression 63 was used to investigate associations between the alcohol effect and study characteristics. Study characteristics included in the analysis were age of the sample (adolescent or adult), type of event (first, recent, recent with new partner), and gender composition of the sample (male, female, or both). Type of event was related to the alcohol effect, with lower odds ratios for the first sexual encounter than for recent encounters (Z = 3.27;P = 0.001), and to recent encounters with new partners (Z = 3.82;P < 0.001). Odds ratios were also lower in samples of adolescents than in samples of adults (Z = 1.86;P = 0.06). Gender composition of the sample was not associated with the alcohol effect.
Studies of Alcohol or Drugs and Condom Use
Results from the eight analyses of alcohol or drug use and condom use showed that people who used any substances in conjunction with sex were less likely to use condoms (summary OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64–0.91), with some heterogeneity in odds ratios (Q [7 df] = 11.1;P = 0.13;Figure 2). The summary odds ratio was highly influenced by a single large study 31; without this study the summary odds ratio for the remaining seven analyses was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.69–1.18).
Tests for publication bias were performed with the Metabias routine in Stata, 64 which performs tests for funnel-plot asymmetry 65,66; no evidence of publication bias was found.
The results of this meta-analysis showed that alcohol use was related to nonuse of condoms at first intercourse, with a trend among adolescents in general toward nonuse of condoms when drinking. Among adults, drinking was unrelated to use of condoms in sexual encounters. The first sexual experience represents a significant and novel milestone, and the factors that affect contraceptive use may not apply to subsequent events. 8 First-timers are novices at sex and probably at drinking as well, and their decisions may reflect the limited knowledge and experience one might expect of beginners. In their first sexual experiences, often with ambivalent feelings, the partners may find that the perceived power of alcohol as a sexual disinhibitor influences their decisions regarding sex and protection. Moreover, drinking, especially for those having sex for the first time, may interfere with planning, which affects the likelihood of using contraception. 26,67
The analysis suggested that using other substances, either alone or in addition to alcohol, may be associated with nonuse of condoms, but none of the reports of the individual studies reviewed gave information about what drugs were used. Alcohol has long been associated with sexual behavior in many contexts 68; therefore, it is not surprising that there have been many studies examining the relationship of alcohol use to sexual behavior in general 68,69 and unprotected sex in particular. 2 Other drugs receiving special attention in relation to sexual risk-taking are methamphetamine, 70 inhalants, 71 and crack/cocaine. 72 Not only do these drugs have different pharmacological effects but they also may be used in very different situations. For example, alcohol can be an instrument of courtship, 68 and as such is more common in encounters with new sexual partners. 24 Cocaine, according to conventional wisdom, has desirable effects on sexual performance, 73 and crack is often associated with trading sex for drugs. 74 Among homosexual men, some research has identified strong relationships between risky sex and the use of nitrites 71 or methamphetamine. 70 Differences in pharmacological effects, situations of use, and reasons for use may lead to different relations of these drugs to unprotected sex.
In the studies reviewed here, drinking with sex was analyzed as a binary measure, without reference to the amount of alcohol consumed. The effect of alcohol on behavior, from a mild energetic state to depression and coma, varies with quantity. 75 A sufficient amount of alcohol leads to depressed reflexes and decreased coordination, potentially interfering with condom use. The amount of alcohol consumed may contribute to the strong relationship of alcohol use and unprotected sex at first intercourse if the amount drunk is particularly large in these encounters. For example, in one study of adults, 36% of women and 55% of men who drank before their most recent sexual encounter with a new partner had 5 or more drinks, 76 whereas studies of first sexual encounters have shown that 54% of young women who drank before their first sexual encounter had 7 or more drinks 77 and that 75% of young men had 5 or more drinks. 67
By ensuring that alcohol use and unprotected sex are temporally paired, an event-level method strengthens causal inferences, but it does not eliminate confounding variables. For example, lifestyle factors such as a propensity for risk-taking, sensation-seeking, or unconventionality might lead to both alcohol use and unprotected sex in these events. Therefore, a link between drinking and unprotected sex in first sexual encounters might represent these lifestyle factors rather than a causal effect of alcohol. 2,78
A cause–effect model and a lifestyle model have different implications for prevention and education. Prevention programs that assume a causal effect of alcohol on risky sex might be ineffective if drinking and risky sex are linked through lifestyle factors. 78 Health education messages that are based on a causal model may even have paradoxical harmful effects, if highlighting a link between drinking and risky sex gives people a convenient excuse for engaging in risky behaviors. 2,79 Moreover, a general message that alcohol leads to sexual risk behavior is misleading, given that this link is found only at first intercourse, where drinking seems entangled with ambivalent feelings and lack of planning. Incorporating these complex relations into education programs for adolescents is a challenging task. 79
The interplay between alcohol use and sexual behavior is part of a context that incorporates elements of personality, situation, and relationships. 26,78 Alcohol use is more common in sexual encounters between casual partners than in encounters involving primary partners, 19,20,23,24 and most people who report drinking in a sexual encounter report that their sexual partner was drinking as well. 24,77 Some findings suggest that drinking is related to unprotected sex for casual sexual partners and not primary partners 49,59 or that alcohol affects sexual activity only at certain points in a relationship. 8 The major finding of this meta-analysis—that drinking is related to unprotected sex only in first sexual encounters—highlights the importance of the context of the sexual encounter in influencing both drinking and sexual behavior.
1. Stall R. The prevention of HIV infection associated with drug and alcohol use during sexual activity. Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse 1987; 7: 73–88.
2. Leigh BC, Stall R. Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: issues in methodology, interpretation, and prevention. Am Psychol 1993; 48: 1035–1045.
3. Howard J, Taylor JA, Ganikos ML, Holder HD, Godwin DF, Taylor ED. An overview of prevention research: issues, answers, and new agendas. Public Health Rep 1988; 103: 674–683.
4. US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and Health: Seventh Special Report to the U.S. Congress. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1990.
5. Dingle GA, Oei TPS. Is alcohol a cofactor of HIV and AIDS? Evidence from immunological and behavioral studies. Psychol Bull 1997; 122: 56–71.
6. Donovan C, McEwan R. A review of the literature examining the relationship between alcohol use and HIV-related sexual risk-taking in young people. Addiction 1995; 90: 319–328.
7. Bolton R, Vincke J, Mak R, Dennehy E. Alcohol and risky sex: in search of an elusive connection. Med Anthropol 1992; 14: 323–363.
8. Halpern-Felsher BL, Millstein SG, Ellen JM. Relationship of alcohol use and risky sexual behavior: a review and analysis of findings. J Adolesc Health 1996; 19: 331–336.
9. Rhodes T, Stimson G. What is the relationship between drug taking and sexual risk? Social relations and social research. Sociol Health Illness 1994; 16: 209–228.
10. Abramson JH. Making Sense of Data: A Self-Instruction Manual on the Interpretation of Epidemiological Data. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
11. Petitti DB. Meta-Analysis, Decision Analysis, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Methods for Quantitative Synthesis in Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
12. Greenland S. Invited commentary: a critical look at some popular meta-analytic methods. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140: 290–296.
13. Sterne JAC, Bradburn MJ, Egger M. Meta-analysis in Stata. In: Egger M, Smith GD, Altman DG, eds. Systematic Reviews in Healthcare: Meta-Analysis in Context. London: BMJ Books, 2001: 347–369.
14. Sharp S, Sterne J. sbe16: meta-analysis. Stata Technical Bulletin 1997; 38: 9–14.
15. Fleiss JL. The statistical basis of meta-analysis. Stat Methods Med Res 1993; 2: 121–145.
16. Avins AL, Woods WJ, Lindan CP, Hudes ES, Clark W, Hulley SB. HIV infection and risk behaviors among heterosexuals in alcohol treatment programs. JAMA 1994; 271: 515–518.
17. Scheidt DM, Windle M. Individual and situational markers of condom use and sex with nonprimary partners among alcoholic inpatients: findings from the ATRISK Study. Health Psychol 1996; 15: 185–192.
18. Kingree JB, Braithwaite R, Woodring T. Unprotected sex as a function of alcohol and marijuana use among adolescent detainees. J Adolesc Health 2000; 27: 179–185.
19. Cooper ML, Peirce RS, Huselid RF. Substance use and sexual risk taking among black and white adolescents. Health Psychol 1994; 13: 251–262.
20. Graves KL. Risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among young adults: results from a national survey. Am J Health Promot 1995; 10: 27–36.
21. Graves KL, Hines AM. Ethnic differences in the association between behavior with a new partner: an event-based analysis. AIDS Educ Prev 1997; 9: 219–237.
22. Leigh BC, Schafer J, Temple MT. Alcohol use and contraception in first sexual experiences. J Behav Med 1995; 18: 81–95.
23. Senf JH, Price CQ. Young adults, alcohol and condom use: what is the connection? J Adolesc Health 1994; 15: 238–244.
24. Temple MT, Leigh BC. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior in discrete events. J Sex Res 1992; 29: 207–219.
25. Kraft P, Rise J, Traeen B. The HIV epidemic and changes in the use of contraception among Norwegian adolescents. AIDS 1990; 4: 673–678.
26. Kraft P, Rise J. Contraceptive behavior of Norwegian adolescents. Health Educ Res 1991; 6: 431–441.
27. MacDonald T, Zanna MP, Fong GT. Why common sense goes out the window: effects of alcohol on intentions to use condoms. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 1996; 22: 763–775.
28. Messiah A, Bloch J, Blin P. Alcohol or drug use and compliance with safer sex guidelines for STD/HIV infection: results from the French National Survey on Sexual Behavior (ACSF) among heterosexuals. Sex Transm Dis 1998; 25: 119–124.
29. Watkins KE, Metzger D, Woody G, McLellan AT. Determinants of condom use among intravenous drug users. AIDS 1993; 7: 719–723.
30. Weinstock HS, Lindan C, Bolan G, Kegeles SM, Hearts N. Factors associated with condom use in a high-risk heterosexual population. Sex Transm Dis 1993; 20: 14–20.
31. Ku L, Sonenstein FL, Pleck JH. Young men's risk behaviors for HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases, 1988 through 1991. Am J Public Health 1993; 83: 1609–1615.
32. Rosenthal D, Smith A, de Visser R. Young people's condom use: an event specific analysis. Venereology 1997; 10: 101–105.
33. Freimuth VS, Hammond SL, Edgar T, McDonald DA, Fink EL. Factors explaining intent, discussion and use of condoms in first-time sexual encounters. Health Educ Res 1992; 7: 203–215.
34. Desiderato LL, Crawford HJ. Risky sexual behavior in college students: relationships between number of sexual partners, disclosure of previous risky behavior, and alcohol use. J Youth Adolesc 1995; 24: 55–68.
35. Leonard L, Ross MW. The last sexual encounter: the contextualization of sexual risk behaviour. Int J STD AIDS 1997; 8: 643–645.
36. Boldero J, Moore S, Rosenthal D. Intention, context, and safe sex: Australian adolescents’ responses to AIDS. J Appl Soc Psychol 1992; 22: 1374–1396.
37. Bailey SL, Camlin CS, Ennett ST. Substance use and risky sexual behavior among homeless and runaway youth. J Adolesc Health 1998; 23: 378–388.
38. Santelli JS, Davis M, Celentano DD, Crump AD, Burwell LG. Combined use of condoms with other contraceptive methods among inner-city Baltimore women. Fam Plann Perspect 1995; 27: 74–78.
39. Santelli JS, Warren CW, Lowry R, et al. The use of condoms with other contraceptive methods among young men and women. Fam Plann Perspect 1997; 29: 261–267.
40. Koch PB, Palmer RF, Vicary JR, Wood JM. Mixing sex and alcohol in college: female-male HIV risk model. J Sex Educ Ther 1999; 24: 99–108.
41. MacNair-Semands RR, Simono RBS. College student risk behaviors: implications for the HIV-AIDS pandemic. J College Student Devel 1996; 37: 574–587.
42. Dermen KH, Cooper ML. Inhibition conflict and alcohol expectancy as moderators of alcohol's relationship to condom use. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 8: 198–206.
43. Dermen KH, Cooper ML, Agocha VB. Sex-related alcohol expectancies as moderators of the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex in adolescents. J Stud Alcohol 1998; 59: 71–77.
44. Marks G, Cantero PJ, Simoni JM. Is acculturation associated with sexual risk behaviors? An investigation of HIV-positive Latino men and women. AIDS Care 1998; 10: 283–295.
45. Westhoff WW, Klein K, McDermott RJ, Schmidt WD, Holcomb DR. Sexual risk-taking by Muscovite youth attending school. J Sch Health 1996; 66: 102–105.
46. Westhoff WW, McDermott RJ, Holcomb DR. HIV risk behaviors: a comparison of U.S. Hispanic and Dominican Republic youth. AIDS Educ Prev 1996; 8: 106–114.
47. Wiley DC, James G, Jordan-Belver C, et al. Assessing the health behaviors of Texas college students. J Am College Health 1996; 44: 167–172.
48. Testa M, Collins RL. Alcohol and risky sexual behavior: event-based analyses among a sample of high-risk women. Psychol Addict Behav 1997; 11: 190–201.
49. Seage GR 3rd, Mayer KH, Wold C, et al. The social context of drinking, drug use, and unsafe sex in the Boston Young Men Study. J AIDS 1998; 17: 368–375.
50. Tubman JG, Langer LM. “About last night:” the social ecology of sexual behavior relative to alcohol use among adolescents and young adults in substance abuse treatment. J Subst Abuse 1995; 7: 449–461.
51. Gold RS, Skinner MJ, Ross MW. Unprotected anal intercourse in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected gay men. J Sex Res 1994; 31: 59–77.
52. Gold RS, Skinner MJ. Situational factors and thought processes associated with unprotected intercourse in young gay men. AIDS 1992; 6: 1021–1030.
53. Gold RS, Karmiloff-Smith A, Skinner MJ, Morton J. Situational factors and thought processes associated with unprotected intercourse in heterosexual students. AIDS Care 1992; 4: 305–323.
54. Gold RS, Skinner MJ, Grant PJ, Plummer DC. Situational factors and thought processes associated with unprotected intercourse in gay men. Psychol Health 1991; 5: 259–278.
55. Trocki KF, Leigh BC. Alcohol consumption and unsafe sex: a comparison of heterosexuals and homosexual men. J AIDS 1991; 4: 981–986.
56. Weatherburn P, Davies PM, Hickson FCI, Hunt AJ, McManus TJ, Coxon PM. No connection between alcohol use and unsafe sex among gay and bisexual men. AIDS 1993; 7: 115–119.
57. Taylor J, Fulop N, Green J. Drink, illicit drugs and unsafe sex in women. Addiction 1999; 94: 1209–1218.
58. Leigh BC. Alcohol consumption and sexual activity as reported with a diary technique. J Abnorm Psychol 1993; 102: 490–493.
59. Fortenberry JD, Orr DP, Katz BP, Brizendine EJ, Blythe MJ. Sex under the influence: a diary self-report study of substance use and sexual behavior among adolescent women. Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24: 313–319.
60. Weinhardt LS, Carey MP, Carey KB, Maisto SA, Gordon CM. The relation of alcohol use to HIV-risk sexual behavior among adults with a severe and persistent mental illness. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001; 69: 77–84.
61. Greenland S, Schlesselman JJ, Criqui MH. The fallacy of employing standardized regression coefficients and correlations as measures of effect. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 123: 203–208.
62. Leigh BC, Morrison DM. Alcohol consumption and sexual risk-taking in adolescents. Alcohol Health Res World 1991; 15: 58–63.
63. Sharp S. sbe23: Meta-analysis regression. Stata Technical Bulletin 1998; 42: 16–24.
64. Steichen T, Egger M, Sterne J. sbe19.1: Tests for publication bias in meta-analysis. Stata Technical Bulletin 1998; 44: 3–4.
65. Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 1994; 50: 1088–1101.
66. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997; 315: 629–634.
67. McLean AL, Flanigan BJ. Transition-marking behaviors of adolescent males at first intercourse. Adolescence 1993; 28: 579–595.
68. Wilson GT. The effects of alcohol on human sexual behavior. In: Mello N, ed. Advances in Substance Abuse. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1981: 1–40.
69. Crowe LC, George WH. Alcohol and human sexuality: review and integration. Psychol Bull 1989; 105: 374–386.
70. Frosch D, Shoptaw S, Huber A, Rawson RA, Ling W. Sexual HIV risk among gay and bisexual male methamphetamine abusers. J Subst Abuse Treat 1996; 13: 483–486.
71. Ostrow DG, Beltran ED, Joseph JG, DiFranceisco W, Wesch J, Chmiel JS. Recreational drugs and sexual behavior in the Chicago MACS/CCS cohort of homosexually active men. J Subst Abuse 1993; 5: 311–325.
72. McBride DC, Inciardi JA, Chitwood DD, et al. Crack use and correlates of use in a national population of street heroin users. J Psychoactive Drugs 1992; 24: 411–416.
73. MacDonald PT, Waldorf D, Reinarman C, Murphy S. Heavy cocaine use and sexual behavior. J Drug Issues 1988; 18: 437–455.
74. Marx R, Aral SO, Rolfs RT, Sterk CE, Kahn JG. Crack, sex, and STD. Sex Transm Dis 1991; 18: 92–101.
75. Holdstock L, de Wit H. Individual differences in the biphasic effects of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998; 22: 1903–1911.
76. Temple MT, Leigh BC, Schafer J. Unsafe sexual behavior and alcohol use at the event level: results of a national survey. J AIDS 1993; 6: 393–401.
77. Flanigan BJ, McLean A, Hall C, Propp V. Alcohol use as a situational influence on young women's pregnancy risk-taking behaviors. Adolescence 1990; 25: 205–214.
78. Fortenberry JD. Adolescent substance use and sexually transmitted diseases risk: a review. J Adolesc Health 1995; 16: 304–308.
79. Weinhardt LS, Carey MP. Does alcohol lead to sexual risk behavior? Findings from event-level research. Ann Rev Sex Res 2000; 11: 125–157.
This article has been cited 69 time(s).
ContraceptionCalculating contraceptive decisions while intoxicatedContraception
AIDS and BehaviorFactors Associated with Drinking Alcohol Before Visiting Female Sex Workers Among Men in Sichuan Province, ChinaAIDS and Behavior
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsQuantity, not frequency, of alcohol use moderates the association between multiple sexual partners and Trichomonas vaginalis among women attending an urban STD clinicSexually Transmitted Infections
AIDS Patient Care and StdsHIV Information and Behavioral Skills Moderate the Effects of Relationship Type and Substance Use on HIV Risk Behaviors Among African American YouthAIDS Patient Care and Stds
Archives of Sexual Behavior
Predictors of HIV risk among men seeking treatment for substance abuse in India
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32(4):
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
HIV/STD risk reduction interventions for African American and Latino adolescent girls at an adolescent medicine clinic - A randomized controlled trial
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(5):
Journal of Sex Research
Effects of alcohol, expectancies, and partner type on condom use in college males: Event-level analyses
Journal of Sex Research, 42(3):
European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health CarePredictors and confounders of unprotected sex: A UK web-based studyEuropean Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
AIDS and BehaviorSexual partners and condom use of migrant workers in ThailandAIDS and Behavior
Archives of Sexual Behavior
The relationship between alcohol and individual differences variables on attitudes and behavioral skills relevant to sexual health among heterosexual young adult men
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33(6):
AIDS and BehaviorAlcohol and sexual HIV risk behavior among problem drinking men who have sex with men: An event level analysis of timeline followback dataAIDS and Behavior
Health PsychologyThe influence of state and trait affect on HIV risk behaviors: A daily diary study of MSMHealth Psychology
Which drugs are preferred for sex in nightlife recreational settings?
AIDS and BehaviorDrinking and condom use: Results from an event-based daily diaryAIDS and Behavior
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Alcohol Consumption, Drug Use, and Condom Use Among STD Clinic Patients
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(5):
Bmc Public HealthPsychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak studentsBmc Public Health
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Relationship of Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking Among Hazardously Drinking Incarcerated Women: An Event-Level Analysis
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(4):
Sex RolesWhen, Where, Why and with Whom Homeless Women Engage in Risky Sexual Behaviors: A Framework for Understanding Complex and Varied Decision-Making ProcessesSex Roles
Basic and Applied Social PsychologyAn Experimental Investigation of the Interactive Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Intentions to Have Unprotected SexBasic and Applied Social Psychology
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Suppression Effects of Partner Type on the Alcohol-Risky Sex Relationship in Young Irish Adults
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(3):
Infectious Disease Clinics of North AmericaSexual tourism: Implications for travelers and the destination cultureInfectious Disease Clinics of North America
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
The theory of reasoned action and the role of external factors on heterosexual men's monogamy and condom use
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(1):
AIDS and BehaviorAlcohol and sexuality research in the AIDS era: Trends in publication activity, target populations and research designAIDS and Behavior
American Journal on AddictionsCannabis Use Correlates of Syringe Sharing among Injection Drug UsersAmerican Journal on Addictions
AIDS and BehaviorBehavioral interventions for HIV-positive and HCV-positive drug usersAIDS and Behavior
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Drinking in conjunction with sexual experiences among at-risk college student drinkers
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68(5):
Drug and Alcohol DependenceAlcohol and HIV sexual risk behaviors among injection drug usersDrug and Alcohol Dependence
AIDS and BehaviorAlcohol as a Correlate of Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Review and Meta-AnalysisAIDS and Behavior
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Is Substance Use a Barrier to Protected Sex Among Homeless Women? Results From Between- and Within-Subjects Event Analyses
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(1):
AddictionThe relation between different dimensions of alcohol consumption and burden of disease: an overviewAddiction
Current Directions in Psychological Science
Does drinking promote risky sexual behavior? A complex answer to a simple question
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(1):
AddictionWomen who fall by the roadside: gender, sexual risk and alcohol in rural UgandaAddiction
Journal of Sex Research
Longitudinal test of a multiple domain model of adolescent condom use
Journal of Sex Research, 44(4):
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Adolescent drinking and sex: Findings from a daily diary study
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 35(4):
AIDS and BehaviorModerating effects of age on the alcohol and sexual risk taking association: An online daily diary study of men who have sex with menAIDS and Behavior
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsDeterminants of inconsistent condom use with female sex workers among men attending the STD clinic in SingaporeSexually Transmitted Infections
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIVSubstance use and HIV risks among male heterosexual and 'money boy' migrants in Shanghai, ChinaAIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Drug and Alcohol DependenceAlcohol, drugs, and condom use among drug offenders: An event-based analysisDrug and Alcohol Dependence
AIDS Education and Prevention
Brief Motivational Interventions for HIV/Sti Risk Reduction Among Individuals Receiving Alcohol Detoxification
AIDS Education and Prevention, 21(5):
AIDS and BehaviorLiquid courage: Alcohol fosters risky sexual decision-making in individuals with sexual fearsAIDS and Behavior
American Journal on AddictionsSex under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol: Common for Men in Substance Abuse Treatment and Associated with High-Risk Sexual BehaviorAmerican Journal on Addictions
Drug and Alcohol DependenceAlcohol intoxication and sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants in ChinaDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Bmc Public HealthKhat and alcohol use and risky sex behaviour among in-school and out-of-school youth in EthiopiaBmc Public Health
Drug and Alcohol ReviewThe global economic burden of alcohol: a review and some suggestionsDrug and Alcohol Review
Sexual HealthCo-occurrence of intoxication during sex and sexually transmissible infections among young African American women: does partner intoxication matter?Sexual Health
International Journal of Public HealthAlcohol consumption and risk of incident human immunodeficiency virus infection: a meta-analysisInternational Journal of Public Health
Drug and Alcohol DependenceRisky sexual behavior in relation to marijuana and alcohol use among African-American, male adolescent detainees and their female partnersDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Experimental and Clinical PsychopharmacologyEffects of alcohol and expectancies on HIV-related risk perception and behavioral skills in heterosexual womenExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Substance Use & MisuseAlcohol use severity and HIV sexual risk among juvenile offendersSubstance Use & Misuse
American Journal of Public HealthAssociation between condom use at sexual debut and subsequent sexual trajectories: A longitudinal study using biomarkersAmerican Journal of Public Health
Health PsychologyAlcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men: The effects of consumption level and partner typeHealth Psychology
Clinical Psychology-Science and Practice
Substance abuse as a risk factor for HIV sexual risk behavior among persons with severe mental illness: Review of evidence and exploration of mechanisms
Clinical Psychology-Science and Practice, 14(1):
Journal of Drug Issues
Alcohol, drugs, sex, and HIV risk behaviors among a community sample of Black and Coloured South Africans
Journal of Drug Issues, 37(3):
Studies in Family Planning
Heterogeneous condom use in contemporary Russia
Studies in Family Planning, 39(1):
Personality and Social Psychology BulletinEffects of Relationship Motivation, Partner Familiarity, and Alcohol on Women's Risky Sexual Decision MakingPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Public HealthA multilevel analysis of condom use among adolescents in the European UnionPublic Health
Prevention ScienceRegression Mixture Models of Alcohol Use and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Criminally-Involved AdolescentsPrevention Science
Journal of American College Health
Condom Use in Heavy Drinking College Students: The Importance of Always Using Condoms
Journal of American College Health, 58(3):
Journal of Addictive DiseasesHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Risk Behavior Among Female Substance AbusersJournal of Addictive Diseases
Preventive MedicineThe use of preventive healthcare by Canadian women who drink alcoholPreventive Medicine
Prevention ScienceChange trajectories in women's STD/HIV risk behaviors following interventionPrevention Science
Journal of Applied Social PsychologyPredictors of condom use in first sexual intercourse: a consideration of individual, situational, relational, and cohort effectsJournal of Applied Social Psychology
Journal of Biosocial ScienceFactors Associated With High-Risk Behaviour Among Migrants in the State of Maharashtra, IndiaJournal of Biosocial Science
AIDS and BehaviorModerating Effect of Age on the Association Between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk in MSM: Evidence for Elevated Risk Among Younger MSMAIDS and Behavior
Bmc Public HealthAlcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in the fishing communities: evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in UgandaBmc Public Health
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesUnprotected Anal Intercourse and Substance Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men With Recent HIV InfectionJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
© Copyright 2002 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.