Background: Because of a high incidence of Trichomonas infection among HIV-positive women, annual screening and treatment are recommended. Trichomonas infection is associated with a 2-fold risk of HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to determine if annual screening is cost-effective for the prevention of new HIV cases in susceptible male partners secondary to Trichomonas infection in HIV-positive women.
Methods: A decision tree analysis was constructed to model the costs of Trichomonas screening, treatment, and follow-up. 200 women cycled through the model for a period of 12 months. One hundred women were unscreened and 100 were screened and treated per recommendations.
Results: Annual Trichomonas screening and treatment saves US$553 (US$475– US$645) per woman in the prevention of HIV transmission to male partners. The cost-effectiveness of this strategy was maintained across all assumptions in a sensitivity analysis.
Conclusions: Trichomonas screening and treatment for the purpose of decreasing new HIV infections is not only cost-effective but also cost saving in HIV-positive women. If Centers for Disease Control and Prevention treatment guidelines were followed in all HIV-positive women living in the United States, the lifetime cost of new HIV infections prevented would approximate US$159,264,000 and could potentially prevent new HIV cases secondary to female-to-male transmissions.