Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) who report receptive anal intercourse (RAI) are currently recommended to undergo at least annual screening for rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infection.
Methods: Using standard culture methods, we assessed the prevalence of rectal GC/CT among MSM who reported RAI in the last year (n = 326) at an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in a midwestern US city. A subset (n = 125) also underwent rectal GC/CT screening via nucleic acid amplification testing. We examined the associations between HIV status and prevalence of rectal GC and rectal CT using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models.
Results: The prevalence of rectal GC, rectal CT, and either rectal infection was 9%, 9%, and 15% by culture and 24%, 23%, and 38% by nucleic acid amplification testing, respectively. HIV was not associated with rectal GC prevalence in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. HIV-positive status was significantly associated with increased rectal CT prevalence in unadjusted models (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–4.60); this association increased after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio, 3.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.37–7.19).
Conclusions: Men who have sex with men reporting RAI had a high prevalence of rectal GC and rectal CT. HIV-positive status was significantly associated with prevalent rectal CT but not with prevalent rectal GC.