Background: Comparative studies of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among men having sex with men (MSM), men having sex with women and men (MSWM), and men having sex with women (MSW) have not been conducted so far; however, such comparisons may be important for planning prevention strategies like vaccination.
Methods: Men, aged 18 to 70 years, were enrolled in a study of genital HPV in São Paulo, Brazil; Cuernavaca, Mexico; and Tampa, FL. Men were classified as MSM (n = 170), MSWM (n = 214), and MSW (n = 3326) based on self-reported sexual behavior. Genotyping for HPV was conducted on cells from the penis and scrotum. Prevalence data were adjusted by country. Factors potentially associated with genital HPV were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression.
Results: Genital HPV prevalence was typically higher among MSWM than among MSM or MSW for groups of HPV genotypes including nononcogenic types (51%, 36%, and 42%, respectively), and multiple types (37%, 24%, and 29%, respectively). Age and alcohol consumption in the past month were associated with oncogenic HPV among both MSM and MSWM; however, there were no statistically significant associations between sexual behaviors and genital HPV among MSM or MSWM.
Conclusions: Prevalence of genital HPV may be higher among MSWM than among MSW or MSM. Number of female sex partners was associated with genital HPV among MSW, but number of male anal sex partners was not associated with genital HPV among MSM and MSWM.