Background: Although condoms most likely prevent HIV infection, evidence of their effectiveness against other sexually transmitted diseases is mixed.
Goal: The goal of the study was to determine whether condom use prevents genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related conditions.
Study Design: We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis of the effect of condom use on the prevention of genital warts, subclinical HPV infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and invasive cervical cancer (ICC).
Results: Among 27 estimates from 20 studies, there was no consistent evidence that condom use reduces the risk of becoming HPV DNA–positive. However, risk for genital warts, CIN of grade II or III (CIN II or III), and ICC was somewhat reduced.
Conclusions: Available data are too inconsistent to provide precise estimates. However, they suggest that while condoms may not prevent HPV infection, they may protect against genital warts, CIN II or III, and ICC.