Background and Objectives:: To investigate in a cross‐sectional study the determinants of oral human papillomavirus infection in 287 individuals who are sexually active.
Goal:: To assess prevalence as well as risk factors for oral human papillomavirus infection.
Study Design:: One hundred seventy‐eight human immunodeficiency virus‐seropositive (158 men and 20 women) and 109 human immunodeficiency virus‐negative (73 men and 36 women) individuals were recruited consecutively from sexually transmitted disease‐human immunodeficiency virus clinics and gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics. Oral brushings were tested with the L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction assay for human papillomavirus detection.
Results:: Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 32 (11.2%) of 287 individuals. Associated with oral human papillomavirus infection on univariate analyses were human immunodeficiency virus infection (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.0–23.2), homosexuality (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–9.4), unprotected oral sex (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6–18.4), syphilis (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–6.3), gonorrhea (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.9–9.1), Chlamydia trachomatis (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8–10.6), and genital herpes (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–6.5). Human immunodeficiency virus infection and C. trachomatis were independently predictive of human papillomavirus infection in multivariate stepwise logistic regression.
Conclusions:: This study suggests that sexual activity plays an important role in the transmission of human papillomavirus in the oral cavity.