The number of patients undergoing revision surgery following failure of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has increased over the recent past, following the overall increased number of primary ACL reconstruction performed. Failure of primary ACL reconstruction can be attributed to technical errors, biological failures, or new traumatic injuries. Technical errors include femoral and/or tibial tunnels malposition, untreated associated ligaments insufficiencies, uncorrected lower limb malalignment, and graft fixation failures. Candidates for revision surgery should be carefully selected, and the success of ACL revision requires precise preoperative planning to obtain successful results. Preoperative planning begins with the analysis of the mechanisms of ACL reconstruction failure, and information regarding previous surgery, such as the type of graft implanted, and the position of existing hardware. Appropriate imaging is necessary to evaluate the position of the femoral and tibial tunnels, and abnormal tunnel widening. On the basis of clinical examination and imaging, surgeon can perform an ACL revision procedure in 1 or 2 stages.
*Unit of Arthroscopy and Sports Medicine, Hesperia Hospital, Via Arqua’, Modena
†Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Ferrara, Via Aldo Moro
‡Department of Musculoskeletal Surgery, University of Salerno, Italy
§Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary University of London
∥Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mile End Hospital, London, UK
Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Reprints: Leonardo Osti, MD, Unit of Arthroscopy and Sports Medicine, Hesperia Hospital, Via Arqua’, Modena, Italy 41125.