Skip Navigation LinksHome > November 01, 2013 - Volume 38 - Issue 23 > AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System: Fr...
doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182a8a381

AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System: Fracture Description, Neurological Status, and Key Modifiers

Vaccaro, Alexander R. MD, PhD*; Oner, Cumhur MD, PhD; Kepler, Christopher K. MD, MBA*; Dvorak, Marcel MD; Schnake, Klaus MD§; Bellabarba, Carlo MD; Reinhold, Max MD; Aarabi, Bizhan MD**; Kandziora, Frank MD, PhD§; Chapman, Jens MD††; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran MD, PhD‡‡; Fehlings, Michael MD, PhD§§; Vialle, Luiz MD, PhD¶¶; for the AOSpine Spinal Cord Injury & Trauma Knowledge Forum

Supplemental Author Material
Collapse Box


Study Design. Reliability and agreement study, retrospective case series.

Objective. To develop a widely accepted, comprehensive yet simple classification system with clinically acceptable intra- and interobserver reliability for use in both clinical practice and research.

Summary of Background Data. Although the Magerl classification and thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS) are both well-known schemes to describe thoracolumbar (TL) fractures, no TL injury classification system has achieved universal international adoption. This lack of consensus limits communication between clinicians and researchers complicating the study of these injuries and the development of treatment algorithms.

Methods. A simple and reproducible classification system of TL injuries was developed using a structured international consensus process. This classification system consists of a morphologic classification of the fracture, a grading system for the neurological status, and description of relevant patient-specific modifiers. Forty cases with a broad range of injuries were classified independently twice by group members 1 month apart and analyzed for classification reliability using the Kappa coefficient (κ).

Results. The morphologic classification is based on 3 main injury patterns: type A (compression), type B (tension band disruption), and type C (displacement/translation) injuries. Reliability in the identification of a morphologic injury type was substantial (κ= 0.72).

Conclusion. The AOSpine TL injury classification system is clinically relevant according to the consensus agreement of our international team of spine trauma experts. Final evaluation data showed reasonable reliability and accuracy, but further clinical validation of the proposed system requires prospective observational data collection documenting use of the classification system, therapeutic decision making, and clinical follow-up evaluation by a large number of surgeons from different countries.

Level of Evidence: 4

© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Follow Us!



Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.