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Preoperative Fibrinogen Plasma Concentration Is Associated With Perioperative Bleeding and Transfusion Requirements in Scoliosis Surgery

Carling, Malin S. MD*; Jeppsson, Anders MD, PhD; Wessberg, Per MD*; Henriksson, Anita RN*; Baghaei, Fariba MD, PhD; Brisby, Helena MD, PhD*

doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181d952dc
Deformity

Study Design. Prospective observational study.

Objective. To investigate the potential association between fibrinogen, bleeding, and transfusion requirements after scoliosis surgery.

Summary of Background Data. Bleeding complications during and after orthopedic surgery are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early identification of patients with increased risk of excessive bleeding offers the possibility to initiate countermeasures. Fibrinogen is a key protein in the coagulation cascade, and thus a potential biomarker for bleeding risk.

Methods. A total of 82 otherwise healthy patients (mean age: 15 ± 3 years, 85% girls) undergoing surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in the study. Patient variables (age, gender, operation time, and thrombosis prophylaxis), preoperative laboratory variables (hemoglobin, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and fibrinogen), peroperative and postoperative bleeding volume, and transfusions were registered. Correlations between laboratory variables and bleeding volume were calculated with Pearson test. Patient variables and laboratory variables were compared with Student t test between patients with bleeding volume in the upper quartile (“bleeders”) and the remaining patients, and between patients with extensive transfusion (defined as >2 U of packed red cells) and no or limited transfusions (≤2 U).

Results. Mean fibrinogen concentration was 3.0 ± 0.7 g/L (range, 1.3– 4.9). Mean total perioperative bleeding volume was 1552 ± 1019 mL (range, 100–5800 mL). Total bleeding volume correlated significantly with preoperative fibrinogen concentration (r = −0.31, P = 0.005) but neither with platelet count, aPTT, nor PT (P = 0.61, 0.46, and 0.57, respectively). Bleeders had significantly lower preoperative fibrinogen plasma concentration (2.6 ± 0.6 vs. 3.1 ± 0.6 g/L, P = 0.002). Of total, 16% (13/82) of the patients were transfused with >2 U of packed red cells. Patients with extensive transfusions had significantly lower preoperative fibrinogen plasma concentration (2.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.1 ± 0.6 g/L, P = 0.002), while preoperative platelet count, aPTT, and PT did not differ.

Conclusion. The results indicate that preoperative fibrinogen concentration is a limiting factor for postoperative hemostasis during and after scoliosis surgery. Preoperative measurement of fibrinogen concentration provides more information about bleeding volume and transfusion requirements than standard screening tests.

Preoperative fibrinogen plasma concentration is a limiting factor for hemostasis during and after scoliosis surgery. Preoperative measurement of fibrinogen provides more information about bleeding volume and transfusions than standard screening tests.

*Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Helena Brisby, MD, PhD, Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden; E-mail: helena.brisby@vgregion.se

Acknowledgment date: September 3, 2009. First revision date: December 29, 2009. Second revision date: January 25, 2010. Acceptance date: January 27, 2010.

The manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s).

Foundation funds were received in support of this work. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this manuscript.

Supported by grants from Marianne och Marcus Wallenberg s Foundation, ALF Va¨stra Go¨taland, FoU Va¨stra Go¨taland, Gothenburg Medical Association, the Swedish Society of Medicine, and the Neubergh Foundation.

The Regional Ethical Review Board approved the study.

© 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.