Carl Nicoladoni (1847–1902) studied medicine in Vienna and became Privatdozent in surgery in 1876. He accepted a chair as a Professor of Surgery at the university clinics of Innsbruck (1881) and Graz (1895). Nicoladoni has made significant contributions in the progress of surgery and performed a variety of operations in several surgical disciplines. However, his principal contributions are in the field of orthopedic surgery, in particular his excellent and detailed studies on scoliosis, based on thorough anatomic and kinetic investigation. His commitment to the research of scoliosis resulted in three books and three bigger treatises, all of which were printed in German. His earliest book was printed in 1882 and was on the torsion of the scoliotic spine, Die Torsion der Skoliotischen Wirbelsäule. Three bigger treatises on scoliosis entitled Die Architektur der Sskoliotischen Wirbelsäule (The Architecture of the Scoliotic Spine, 1889), Die Architektur der Kindlichen Skoliose (The Architecture of Juvenile Scoliosis, 1894), and Die Skoliose des Lendensegmentes (The Scoliosis of Lumbar Segments, 1894) were published in an anthology called Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, a series of publications from the imperial academy of science. Two versions of his epical work, Anatomie und Mechanismus der Skoliose (Anatomy and Mechanism of Scoliosis) were printed. A larger edition printed in 1904 was part of the Bibliotheca Medica, a monumental series of various clinical books published around the beginning of the past century. The second version, a shortened one, with the same title was included in an anthology called Deutsche Chirurgie (German Surgery) and published in 1909. The purpose of this historical article is to discuss Nicoladoni’s achievements in the field of scoliosis based on a detailed analysis of his books.