As far as the effects of antecedent precipitation are concerned, APR did not improve the coefficients of determination of the fits when this factor was included in the MLR model (Table 6). Only in Casal das Hortas (c_18) was the increase in adj. R2 substantial (from 0.38 to 0.51). In addition, APR presented a significance P > 0.05 in six catchments (38%; Table 6): Aixola (c_3), Latxaga (c_4), Araguás1 (c_6), Puente Genil (c_11), San Salvador (c_14), and Corbeira (c_16). With the exception of Corbeira (c_16), the channel mean slopes of those catchments were larger than 7%, which may indicate steeper slopes and shallower soils and a reduced influence of these variables on runoff generation. It is worth noting that the patterns of runoff generation must be controlled by local physical factors (different from APR) whose spatial variability determines the response in the outlet. Schnabel and Gómez-Gutiérrez (2013) mentioned the importance of soil moisture in the valley bottoms as a key factor to understand the hydrological behavior of Parapuños (c_15). The different response patterns of the catchments such as Araguas1 (c_6) and Araguas2 (c_17) also illustrate the need for specific analysis of the catchments to describe their hydrological behaviour.
Although APR must have influenced the runoff generation, it has a low contribution to explain the runoff at the event and catchment scales. On the other hand, neither the annual rainfall nor the presence of base flow had a clear influence on rainfall-runoff relationships, probably as a result of very different environmental and experimental conditions in the aforementioned cases. Apparently, higher infiltration rates and less forested area may involve less memory or closer initial soil moisture conditions and therefore more constant (linear) response patterns to rainfall. There is a persistent demand for studies that use hydrological indices/signatures to establish criteria to group hydrological regimes in order to identify, among other factors, ecological aspects and the behavior of rivers (Baeza-Sanz and Garcia de Jalon, 2005; Poff et al., 2010; D'Ambrosio et al., 2017). Despite the heterogeneity of the catchments, rainfall-runoff patterns at the event scale have allowed us to group the catchments into a small number of different response types. Management of small rural catchments is essential because their contribution to rivers in terms of sediment (and water quality) may lead to serious risk of floods, as well as damage to ecological systems. Thus, the characterization of flow patterns of small rural catchments (or signatures) in terms of magnitude and susceptibility of response can provide guidelines for planning and implementation of measures to deal with source areas of runoff and sediment, which are eventually discharged into large rivers.
In a context of the lack of experimental measurement-based runoff coefficients of small rural catchments in the IP, our results illustrate an empirical method to determine the representative volumetric runoff coefficient for gauged and ungauged catchments. The event rainfall accounted for more than 50% of the event runoff variance in 50% of the catchments. The catchments were highly heterogeneous in terms of land use and location in the IP, and neither annual rainfall nor base flow presence contributed significantly to explaining the rainfall-runoff patterns. The previous rainfall had a variable and irrelevant influence on the runoff generation. A greater effort needs to be made to describe and analyze small/medium rural catchments because taking action at this scale can be more economical and efficient than planning measures that are focused solely on the riparian areas of large rivers.
Alcázar J., Palau A.. 2010. Establishing environmental flow regimes in a Mediterranean watershed based on a regional classification. J. Hydrol. 388:41–51.
Baeza-Sanz D., Garcia de Jalon D.. 2005. Characterisation of stream flow regimes in central Spain, based on relevant hydrobiological parameters. J. Hydrol. 310:266–279.
Batalla R. J., Gómez C. M., Kondolf G. M.. 2004. Reservoir-induced hydrological changes in the Ebro River basin (NE Spain). J. Hydrol. 290:117–136.
Bennett J. C., Robertson D. E., Ward P. G. D., Prasantha Hapuarachchi H. A., Wang Q. J.. 2016. Calibrating hourly rainfall-runoff models with daily forcings for streamflow forecasting applications in meso-scale catchments. Environ. Model. Software. 76:20–36.
Belmar O., Bruno D., Martínez-Capel F., Barquín J., Velasco J.. 2013. Effects of flow regime alteration on fluvial habitats and riparian quality in a semiarid Mediterranean basin. Ecol. Indic. 30:52–64.
Belmar O., Velasco J., Martinez-Capel F.. 2011. hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean Rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain). Environ. Manage. 47:992–1004.
Canatário Duarte A., Mateos L.. 2013. Contaminação difusa numa pequena bacia hidrográfica com uso agrícola, e impacte na qualidade dos fluxos de retorno. In: VIII Congresso sobre Gestão e Planeamento da Água, Lisboa 5–7 Dec. del Agua, Fundación Nueva Cultura.
Casalí J., Gastesi R., Álvarez-Mozos J., De Santisteban L. M., Del Valle de Lersundi J., Giménez R., Larrañaga A., Goñi M., Agirre U., Campo M. A., López J. J., Donézar M.. 2008. Runoff, erosion, and water quality of agricultural watersheds in central Navarre (Spain). Agric. Water Manage. 95:1111–1128.
Chow V. T., Maidment D. R., Mays L. W.. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw Hill, New York.
Cid P., Gómez-Macpherson H., Boulal H., Mateos L.. 2016. Catchment scale hydrology of an irrigated cropping system under soil conservation practices. Hydrol. Proc. 30:4593–4608.
Colin F., Guillaum S., Tisseyre B.. 2011. Small catchment agricultural management using decision variables defined at catchment scale and a fuzzy rule-based system: A Mediterranean vineyard case study. Water Resour Manage. 25:2649–2668.
D'Ambrosio E., De Girolamo A. M., Barca E., Ielpo P., Rulli M. C.. 2017. Characterising the hydrological regime of ungauged temporary river system: A case study. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24:13950–13966.
Dhakal N., Fang X., Cleveland P. E. T. G., Thompson P. E. D. B., Asquith P. E. W. H., Marzen L. J.. 2012. Estimation of volumetric runoff coefficients for Texas watersheds using land-use and rainfall-runoff data. ASCE J. Irrig. Drain. Eng. 138:43–54.
Duvert C., Nord G., Gratiot N., Navratil O., Nadal-Romero E., Mathys N., Némery J., Regüés D., García-Ruiz J. M., Gallart F., Esteves M.. 2012. Towards prediction of suspended sediment yield from peak discharge in small erodible mountainous catchments (0.45–22 km2) of France, Mexico and Spain. J. Hydrol. 454–455:42–55.
Eckhardt K. 2005. How to construct recursive digital filters for baseflow separation. Hydrol. Proc. 19:507–515.
Ferreira C. S. S., Steenhuis T. S., Walsh R. P. D., Soares D., Ferreira A. J. D., Coelho C. O. A.. 2013. Land-use change impacts on hydrological soil properties and implications for overland-flow in a periurban Mediterranean catchment. In: EGU General Assembly 2013. Geophysical Research Abstract 15, EGU2013-972, Vienna, Austria.
García-Ruiz J. M., Regüés D., Alvera B., Lana-Renault N., Serrano-Muela P., Nadal-Romero E., Navas A., Latron J., Martí-Bono C., Arnáez J.. 2008. Flood generation and sediment transport in experimental catchments affected by land use changes in the central Pyrenees. J. Hydrol. 356(1–2):245–260.
Giménez R., Casalí J., Díez J.. 2012a. Evaluación de la producción de sedimentos y calidad de las aguas en cuencas agrarias de Navarra. Cuadernos Investig. Geogr. 38(1):7–25.
Giménez R., Casalí J., Grande I., Díez J., Campo M. A., Álvarez-Mozos J., Goñi M.. 2012b. Factors controlling sediment export in a small agricultural watershed in Navarre (Spain). Agric. Water Manage. 110:1–8.
Gómez J. A., Vanwalleghem T., De Hoces A., Taguas E. V.. 2014. Hydrological and erosive response of a small catchment under olive cultivation in a vertic soil during a five-year period: Implications for sustainability. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 188:229–244.
Gómez-Gutiérrez A., Schnabel S., Sanjosé Blasco J. J.. 2009. Variación temporal de la erosión por cárcavas en los fondos de valle bajo explotación de dehesa. Cuadernos Investig. Geogr. 35(2):289–304.
Hawkins R. H. 1993. Asymptotic determination of runon Curve Number from data. J. Irrig. Drain Eng. 119(2):334–345.
Heiser M., Scheidl C., Eisl J., Spangl B., Hübl J.. 2015. Process type identification in torrential catchments in the eastern Alps. Geomorphol. 232(2015):239–247.
Hjemfelt A. T. 1991. An investigation of the Curve Number procedure. ASCE J. Hydr. Eng. 117(6):725–737.
Hrachowitz M., Savenije H. H. G., Blöschl G., McDonnell J. J., Sivapalan M., Pomeroy J. W., Arheimer B., Blume T., Clark M. P., Ehret U., Fenicia F., Freer J. E., Gelfan A., Gupta H. V., Hughes D. A., Hut R. W., Montanari A., Pande S., Tetzlaff D., Troch P. A., Uhlenbrook S., Wagener T., Winsemius H. C., Woods R. A., Zehe E., Cudennec C.. 2013. A decade of predictions in ungauged basins (PUB): A review. Hydrol. Sci. J. 58(6):1198–1255.
Knapp H. V., Durgunoglu A., Ortel T. W.. 1991. A review of rainfall-runoff modeling for stormwater management. U.S. Geologic Survey—Illinois, Champaign, IL.
Lana-Renault N., Latron J., Karssenberg D., Serrano P., Regüés D., Bierkens M. F. P.. 2011. Differences in streamflow in relation to changes in land cover: A comparative study in two sub-Mediterranean mountain catchments. J. Hydrol. 411:366–378.
Lana-Renault N., Nadal-Romero E., Serrano-Muela M. P., Alvera B., Sánchez-Navarrete P., Sanjuan Y., García-Ruiz J. M.. 2014. Comparative analysis of the response of various land covers to an exceptional rainfall event in the central Spanish Pyrenees, Earth Surf. Proc. Landf. 39:581–592.
Li Y., Li X., Li G.. 2015. Runoff coefficient characteristics and its dominant influence factors of the riparian Myricaria squamosa Desv. shrubs over Qinghai Lake basin, NE Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Arab J. Geosci. 8:6655–6666.
Lucía A., Laronne J. B., Martín-Duque J. F.. 2011. Geodynamics processes on Sandy slope gullies in central Spain field observations, methods and measurements in a singular system. Geodin. Acta. 24(2):61–79.
Lyne V. D., Hollick M.. 1979. Stochastic time-variable rainfall runoff modelling. Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, Institution of Engineers, Australia, Perth, Australia, pp. 89–92.
Magdaleno F., Fernández J. A.. 2011. Hydromorphological alteration of a large Mediterranean river: Relative role of high and low flows on the evolution of riparian forests and channel morphology. River Res. Appl. 27(3):374–387.
Malinowski E. R. 1991. Factor Analysis in Chemistry. 2nd ed. John Wiley, New York.
Mathias S. A., McIntyre N., Oughton R. H.. 2016. A study of non-linearity in rainfall-runoff response using 120 UK catchments. J. Hydrol. 540:423–436.
Mateo Lázaro J., Sánchez Navarro J., García Gil A., Edo Romero V.. 2016. Flood frequency analysis (FFA) in Spanish catchments. J. Hydrol. 538:598–608.
Merz R., Bloschl G., Parajka J.. 2006. Spatio-temporal variability of event runoff coefficients. J. Hydrol. 331:591–604.
Mishra S. K., Singh V.. 2003. Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) methodology. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
Nadal-Romero E., Cammeraat E., Serrano Muela M. P., Lana-Renault N., Regüés D.. 2016. Hydrological response of an afforested catchment in a Mediterranean humid mountain area: A comparative study with a natural forest. Hydrol. Proc. 30(15):2717–2733.
Nadal-Romero E., Regüés D.. 2010. Geomorphological dynamics of sub-humid mountain badland areas—Weathering, hydrological and suspended sediment transport processes: A case study in the Araguás catchment (Central Pyrenees) and implications for altered hydroclimatic regimes. Prog. Phys. Geogr. 34(2):123–150.
Norbiato D., Borga M., Merz R., Blöschl G., Carton A.. 2009. Controls on event runoff coefficients in the eastern Italian Alps. J. Hydrol. 375:312–325.
Peña D.-A., Trigo R. M., Cortesid N., González-Hidalgo J. C.. 2016. The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula. Atmos. Res. 178–179:217–230.
Poff N. L., Richter B., Arthington A. H., Bunn S. E., Naiman R. J., Kendy E., Acreman M., Apse C., Bledsoe B. P., Freeman M., Henriksen J., Jacobson R. B., Kennen J., Merritt D. M., O'Keeffe J., Olden J. D., Rogers K., Tharme R. E., Warner A.. 2010. The Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards. Freshwater Biol. 55:147–170.
Raposo J. R., Molinero J., Dafonte J.. 2012. Parameterization and quantification of recharge in crystalline fractured bedrocks in Galicia-Costa (NW Spain). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 16:1667–1683.
Soil Conservation Service. 1956. Hydrology-National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10. NCRS-USDA, Washington, DC.
Rodríguez-Blanco M. L., Taboada-Castro M. M., Taboada-Castro M. T.. 2013. Phosphorus transport into a stream draining from a mixed land use catchment in Galicia (NW Spain): Significance of runoff events. J. Hydrol. 481:12–21.
Schnabel A., Gómez-Gutiérrez A.. 2013. The role of interannual rainfall variability on runoff generation in a small dry sub-humid watershed with disperse tree cover. Cuadernos Investig. Geogr 2013. 39(2):259–285.
Sanborn S. C., Bledsoe B.. 2006. Predicting streamflow regime metrics for ungauged streams in Colorado, Washington, and Oregon. J. Hydrol. 325:241–261.
Taguas E. V., Ayuso J. L., Pérez R., Giráldez J. V., Gómez J. A.. 2013. Intra and inter-annual variability of runoff and sediment yield of an olive micro-catchment with soil protection by natural ground cover in Southern Spain. Geoderma. 206:49–62.
Taguas E. V., Gómez J. A.. 2015. Vulnerability of olive orchards under the current CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) regulations on soil erosion: A study case in Southern Spain. Land Use Pol. 42:683–694.
Taguas E. V., Gómez J. A., Denisi P., Mateos L.. 2015a. Modelling the rainfall-runoff relationships in a large olive orchard catchment in southern Spain. Water Resour. Manag. 29(7):2361–2375.
Taguas E. V., Yuan Y., Licciardello F., Gómez J. A.. 2015b. Curve Numbers for Olive Orchard catchments: Case study in southern Spain. ASCE J. Irrig. Drain. Eng. 141(11):05015003.
USDA-NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service. 1997. Part 630 Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
Wang X., Yang T., Wortmann M., Shi P., Hattermann F., Lobanova A., Aich V.. 2017. Analysis of multi-dimensional hydrological alterations under climate change for four major river basins in different climate zones. Clim. Change. 141:483–498.
Westerberg I. K., Wagener T., Coxon G., McMillan H. K., Castellarin A., Montanari A., Freer J.. 2016. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures for gauged and ungauged catchments. Water Resour. Res. 52(3):1847–1865.
Xing Z., Yan D., Zhang C., Wang G., Zhang D.. 2015. Spatial characterization and bivariate frequency analysis of precipitation and runoff in the Upper Huai River Basin, China. Water Resour. Manage. 29:3291–3304.
Zabaleta A., Martínez M., Uriarte J. A., Antigüedad I.. 2007. Factors controlling suspended sediment yield during runoff events in small headwater catchments of the Basque Country. Catena. 71(1):179–190.