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Soil Science:
doi: 10.1097/SS.0000000000000055
Technical Article

Placement and Source Effects of Phosphate Fertilizers on Phosphorus Availability and Reaction Products in Two Reduced-Till Soils: A Greenhouse Study

Khatiwada, Raju1; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.1; Mengel, David B.1; Fei, Mingwei2

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Abstract

Abstract: Crop yields are limited primarily by unavailability of nutrients in agricultural soil. Adoption of reduced-tillage and no-tillage systems leads to stratification of nutrients in surface soil, so management of phosphorus (P) in these systems is a major issue. The objective of this research was to understand the influence of placement (broadcast vs. deep-placed P) and fertilizer source (granular vs. liquid P) on the reaction products of P under greenhouse conditions using soil columns. Phosphorus was added at a rate of 75 kg/ha to two soils: an acid soil from Manhattan, KS, and a slightly acid to neutral soil from Ottawa, KS. At 5 weeks after P application, soil pH, resin-extractable P, and speciation of P in soils were determined at different distances from the point of fertilizer application. Scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to understand P speciation. Results for P fertilizer sources and placement with respect to resin-extractable P showed no clear differences between the treatments except for granular broadcast and granular deep-placed treatments in the Ottawa soil. Reaction products formed after application of P in two soils showed some clear differences. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure speciation revealed that Fe-P-like forms dominated in the acidic soil, whereas adsorbed and Fe and Ca-P-like forms dominated in the neutral to slightly acid soil. No clear trends in reaction products were detected with respect to P source or the P placement method. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of incubated fertilizer granules extracted from soils at 5 weeks showed enrichment of Al, Fe, and Ca in the zones of remaining P in incubated granules, indirectly indicating that these cations enter and or remaining in the granules and begin to react with P before the granules dissolve completely.

© 2014Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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