Arthroscopy uses a completely different skill set compared with open orthopedic surgery. Hitherto, arthroscopy had not been given enough emphasis in the core orthopedic curricula. Simulation has been seen as an excellent way to teach the skills required in arthroscopy. The simulators used for arthroscopy training can be broadly classified into physical simulators such as cadavers, animals, models and box trainers, virtual-reality simulators, and hybrid simulators that combine virtual-reality simulation with physical components that allow real tactile feedback. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these types have been described in this article. The factors that determine skill acquisition using these simulators have been highlighted. In conclusion, simulation seems to be a valuable tool for arthroscopy training, although further studies are needed to state whether this translates into better operative skill on real patients.
From the Departments of Orthopaedics (S.S.M.) and Surgery (D.R.P.), Melaka Manipal Medical College, Jalan Batu Hampar, Bukit Baru, Melaka, Malaysia.
Reprints: Simerjit Singh Madan, MS, Department of Orthopaedics, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Jalan Batu Hampar, Bukit Baru, Melaka, Malaysia (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Both the authors contributed to the drafting of the manuscript and critical revision for important intellectual content and are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
The authors disclose no conflicts of interest.