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In Situ Simulation to Assess Workplace Attitudes and Effectiveness in a New Facility

Gardner, Aimee King PhD; Ahmed, Rami A. DO; George, Richard L. MD, MSPH; Frey, Jennifer A. PhD, CCRP

Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare: December 2013 - Volume 8 - Issue 6 - p 351–358
doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e31829f7347
Empirical Investigations

Introduction: In situ simulation within new facilities holds the promise of identifying latent safety threats. The aim of this study was to identify if in situ simulation can also impact important employee perceptions and attitudes.

Methods: In the current study, health care professionals of an adult, urban, community teaching hospital level 1 trauma center participated in simulated scenarios in a new emergency department. Before and after the simulated scenarios, participants provided responses to the variables regarding their ability to work in the new facility and other work-related variables.

Results: Significant increases in communication (P = 0.05), facility clinical readiness (P < 0.05), self-efficacy (P < 0.01), trauma readiness (P < 0.01), and work space satisfaction (P < 0.05) were found from presimulation to postsimulation. The results also demonstrated a significant decrease from presimulation to postsimulation with performance beliefs (P < 0.001). Finally, cardiac readiness did not reveal a significant change from presimulation to postsimulation.

Discussion: In situ simulation exercises before practicing clinically in a new facility can both increase familiarity with new clinical environments and impact important organizational outcomes. Thus, simulation in a new work space can influence factors important to employees, organizations, and patients.

From the Departments of Emergency Medicine (R.A.A., J.A.F.) and Medical Education (R.A.A.), and Division of Trauma (R.L.G.), Department of Surgery, Summa Akron City Hospital; and Austen BioInnovation Institute in Akron (A.K.G., R.A.A.), Akron; and Departments of Emergency Medicine (R.A.A.), and Surgery (R.L.G.), Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH.

Reprints: Aimee King Gardner, PhD, Department of Surgery, UT Southwestern Medical Center. 5323 Harry Hines Blvd. Dallas, TX 75390 (e-mail:

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Financial support for this project has been provided by the Summa Foundation.

© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.