This article is a review of the literature focused on simulation as an educational intervention in healthcare. The authors examined the literature based on four key levels: (1) the validity and reliability of the simulator, (2) the validity and reliability of the performance evaluation tool, (3) the study design, and (4) the translational impact. The authors found that the majority of research literature in healthcare simulation does not address the validity and reliability of the simulator or the performance evaluation tool. However, there are well-designed research studies that address the translation into clinical settings and have positive patient safety outcomes.
From the Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine (J.J.S., A.A.V.) and Healthcare Simulation of South Carolina (J.J.S., A.A.V., F.W.L.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC College of Nursing (C.L.C.), University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX; Clinical Playground, LLC. (E.B.B.), Madison, WI; Victoria Infirmary (R.J.G.), Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom; MGH Institute of Health Professions (D.D.N.), MGH Learning Laboratory, Boston, MA.
John Schaefer received patent royalties from Laerdal Medical Corp. (SimMan/Baby/3G) and is a nonmajority owner of SimTunes (outlet for MUSC simulation copyrightable material). Carolyn Cason received a research grant from Laerdal Medical Corporation and is a consultant to CAE Healthcare, Inc.
Reprints: John J. Schaefer III, MD, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).