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Role of Alveolar Macrophages in the Inflammatory Response After Trauma
Niesler, Ulrike*; Palmer, Annette*; Radermacher, Peter†; Huber-Lang, Markus S.*
ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), can result from both direct and indirect pulmonary damage caused by trauma and shock. In the course of ALI/ARDS, mediators released from resident cells, such as alveolar macrophages, may act as chemoattractants for invading cells and stimulate local cells to build up a proinflammatory micromilieu. Depending on the trauma setting, the role of alveolar macrophages is differentially defined. This review focuses on alveolar macrophage function after blunt chest trauma, ischemia/reperfusion, hemorrhagic shock, and thermal burns.
© 2014 by the Shock Society
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Alveolar macrophages, trauma, inflammation, blunt chest trauma, ischemia/reperfusion, hemorrhagic shock, burn, ALI - acute lung injury, AP-1 - activator protein 1, ARDS - acute respiratory distress syndrome, AT2 cells - alveolar epithelial type 2 cells, CCR2 - CC chemokine receptor type 2, CINC-1 - cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1, COX - cyclooxygenase, cPLA2 - cytosolic phospholipase A2, Hck - tyrosine-protein kinase Hck, HMGB1 - high-mobility group protein B1, HS/R - hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation, IL - interleukin, iNKT - invariant natural killer T cells, I/R - ischemia/reperfusion, IRAK4 - interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, JNK - c-Jun N-terminal kinase, KC - keratinocyte-derived chemokine, LPS - lipopolysaccharide, MCP-1 - monocyte chemotactic protein-1, MIP-1[alpha] - macrophage inflammatory protein-1[alpha], MIP-2 - macrophage inflammatory protein 2, MyD88 - myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88), NF-[kappa]B - nuclear factor kappa B, Nlrp3 - NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing protein 3, NO - nitric oxide, PCA - procoagulant activity, ROS - reactive oxygen species, Src - proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, TLR - toll-like receptor, TNF - tumor necrosis factor
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